Scripted stimuli combines with spontaneous interaction in an easy-to-use guessing game. Students master the tricky rules of question-asking in a fun format!
- Ask wh- questions and questions with interrogative reversals
- Increase participation in conversations
Busy clinicians rely on the SPARC series for:
- convenience and portability
- lots of pictures
- plenty of practice opportunities
- use for a variety of therapy goals
- no student reading requirements
Ten units teach students to use singular and plural pronouns and verb forms in their questions. Each of the units focuses on these skill areas:
- wh- interrogatives: what, who, where, when, how, why, which
- interrogative reversals: is/are, was/were, has/have/had, does/do/did, could/should/would, will
- subject-verb agreement in questions
- pronoun usage in questions
The lessons are interactive. A student chooses a picture on a page without revealing his picture choice. The student then asks the Lead Question(s). Scripted stimuli prompt other students in the group to formulate Guess Questions until the picture choice is apparent. The Lead Questions and the Guess Questions give them practice in each of the four question skill areas listed above.
Alternative Activities in each lesson supply an abundance of stimuli for goals in receptive and expressive language, vocabulary, reasoning, making predictions, and auditory recall.
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- Questioning is the core of critical reflection. It prompts students to engage in a research process that fosters higher-order thinking skills (Daniel et al., 2005).
- Oral language development has a direct bearing on reading achievement and success in school (Catts, Fey, & Tomblin, 2002).
- Students should understand specific grammar structures before they are asked to use them in speech (Taylor-Goh, 2005).
- Both comprehension and production should be considered in all areas of grammar. Particular attention should be paid to syntactic movement, especially wh- questions (Taylor-Goh, 2005).
- Graphic and semantic organizers, question generation, and summarization are three strategies that have a firm scientific basis for improving comprehension (NRP, 2000).
SPARC for Questions incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Catts, H.W., Fey, M.E., & Tomblin, J.B. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1142-1157.
Daniel, M.F., Lafortune, L., Pallascio, R., Splitter, L., Slade, C., & de la Garza, T. (2005). Modeling the development process of dialogical critical thinking in pupils ages 10 to 12 years. Communication Education, 54(4), 334-354.
National Reading Panel (NRP). (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Retrieved on November 20, 2009, from www.readingrockets.org/research/federal
Taylor-Goh, S. (2005). Royal college of speech and language therapists: Clinical guidelines. United Kingdom: Speechmark.