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Just for Kids Phonological Processing
Ages: 4-9   Grades: PreK-4

Reduce phonological processes with theme-based, experiential learning.  Materials in the book and every day items are used in natural contexts to help children generalize what they learn.   

Outcomes

  • Replace phonological processes with correct productions
  • Reduce/eliminate velar fronting, liquid gliding, cluster reduction, syllable reduction, final consonant deletion, and stridency deletion
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*The CD contains the complete book.  All pages are printable.
** This is an eBook that can be downloaded and installed on your computer immediately after purchase.
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Twenty-two themed lessons target these phonological processes:

  • Velar fronting (k,g)
  • Cluster reduction (l, s, r)
  • Final consonant deletion
  • Liquid gliding (l, r)
  • Syllable reduction
  • Stridency deletion (f, v, sh, ch, j, s, z)

Each lesson consists of:

Pretest/Posttest
The 30 words on the test are not theme-related, allowing you to determine if the child has begun to generalize the new contexts.

Target Word List
These themed words contain the target phonological process and associated phonemes and are used throughout the lesson. 

Activities and Role Play
Practice using the target words in interactive activities like pretend play, games, crafts, and cooking.     

Family Letter
Introduce the phonological process and theme to families and give them ideas for practice of the target words in home activities. 

Reproducible Picture Card
There are ten reproducible picture cards depicting the targeted phonological process.  Use the pictures for drill, activities, home practice, and card games.

Rebus Story
Pictures of targeted words are incorporated into a themed story.  The child may "read along" with the pictures and retell the story in her own words. 

Sequence Story
A four-part story provides multiple opportunities for practicing the targeted phonological processes.  Make a book with the pictures and practice story telling. 

Copyright © 1998

Components
188 pages, pretests/posttests
  • There is a positive correlation between the lexicon and phonology of preschool and schoolaged children; that is, the development of one influences the development of the other (Storkel & Morrisette, 2002).
  • Whole-language and naturalistic approaches facilitate phonological performance based on the relationship between the need to be understood and articulatory proficiency (Hoffman, Norris, & Monjure, 1990).
  • Generalization of correct production from one sound to another is expected when remediation targets are selected on the basis of place, manner, and voicing analysis; distinctive feature analysis; or phonological process/pattern analysis (Bernthal & Bankson, 2004).
  • According to the critical age hypothesis, unintelligible speech must be resolved by age 5:6 in order to significantly reduce academic problems associated with speech disorders (Bishop & Adams, 1990).

Just for Kids Phonological Processing incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.

References

Bernthal, J.E., & Bankson, N.W. (2004). Articulation and phonological disorders. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bishop, D.V.M., & Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders, and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 7, 1027-1050.

Hoffman, P.R., Norris, J.A., & Monjure, J. (1990). Comparison of process targeting and whole language treatments for phonologically delayed preschool children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 21, 102-109.

Storkel, H.L., & Morrisette, M.L. (2002). The lexicon and phonology: Interactions in language acquisition. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 33, 24-37.

Author(s)

Lynn K. Flahive, Janet R. Lanza

Biography

Lynn K. Flahive, M.S., CCC-SLP, has over 20 years experience as a speech-language pathologist.  She worked in private and public schools in Wisconsin, Ohio, Illinois, and Texas for 12 years before joining the department of communication sciences and disorders at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas.  Lynn has special interests in working with early childhood and early elementary-aged children with phonological and/or language delays.  Just for Kids Phonological Processing is Lynn's first publication with LinguiSystems.

Janet R. Lanza, M.S., CCC-SLP, has worked as a speech-language pathologist for over 22 years in public schools and private practice in Texas.  She has been on the faculty of the department of communication sciences and disorders at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas, since 1989.  At the TCU Miller Speech and Hearing Clinic, Janet is an instructor and clinical supervisor for classroom settings of preschool children with a variety of communication disorders.  Just for Kids Phonological Processing is her eighth publication with LinguiSystems.

Introduction

Learning that lasts comes from experiences.  That is the basic principle that guided the creation of Just for Kids Phonological Processing.  This product goes beyond the traditional, drill-like approach to phonological processes therapy by incorporating targeted processes into fun, natural activities.  Each lesson is centered around an age-appropriate theme that offers opportunities for vocabulary development as well as many levels of practice with the targeted phonological processes and associated phonemes.

The variety of levels within each lesson include target words; picture cards; rebus stories; sequence stories; and interactive, hands-on experiences.  Family letters with carryover activities and pre/posttests complete the package.

Just for Kids Phonological Processing is equally effective when working with individuals or groups.  Specific parts of each lesson can be used or the lessons may be presented in their entirety.  Just for Kids Phonological Processing can be used successfully exactly as presented, but it also provides many opportunities for your students' and your own creative talents.

Just for Kids Phonological Processing consists of 22 theme-related lessons that target these phonological processes:

  • Velar Fronting—3 lessons
  • Cluster Reduction—6 lessons (2 each for /l/, /s/, and /r/)
  • Final Consonant Deletion—3 lessons
  • Liquid Gliding—3 lessons
  • Syllable Reduction—2 lessons
  • Stridency Deletion—5 lessons

The themes in the lessons were chosen for their appeal to young children.  They provide many opportunities for vocabulary development and allow for fun, hands-on, interactive experiences.  Major components of each lesson include: 

Pre/Posttest

  • Before the lessons for each phonological process, word lists are provided as measures of the child's ability to produce the target process.  These can be used with your model for the child to repeat or given to children at a higher level to read on their own.  We suggest that the test be given before a lesson is begun and then repeated after all segments of the lesson have been completed.  Pre/posttests can be compared to demonstrate progress.  You can use the pre/posttests with one child or a group of children.  The words on the lists are not theme-related and are not meant to test the same words used in therapy.  They will, however, show if the child has begun to reduce use of the targeted phonological process and to generalize the new phonemes.  Example pre/posttest forms are included.  A blank pre/posttest form is also provided for you to use in an interactive activity for connected speech.  Use the same activity before the lesson is started and again after all segments of the lesson are completed.  Record correct and incorrect articulation of words in connected speech that contain the targeted phonological process.  Pre/posttests can be compared to demonstrate progress.  You can use the blank pre/posttest with up to four children.

Target Words

  • At the beginning of each lesson, a list of target words is provided.  These words are theme-related and contain the chosen phonological process and associated phonemes for that lesson.  When appropriate, the words are listed in alphabetical order by groups of initial, medial, or final position of occurrence in the word.  The target words are used throughout the lesson.  They may also be used as a helpful guide during all of the hands-on and role-play activities.

Activities and Role Plays

  • Children love to be busy and to play and pretend.  Many ideas for interactive experiences are suggested for each lesson.  They include games or activities using the picture cards, arts and crafts, cooking, or role plays.  For each of these experiences, plan ahead for the words that will be targeted.  Have the child repeat the target words using the picture cards, your model, and/or the objects as a guide.  Once you begin the activity, elicit the target words as many times as possible in a natural conversation.  Materials are listed for the suggested activities.  The materials consist of pictures or common everyday objects that will add fun and meaning.  You may choose to use one or all of the suggested activities throughout the lesson.  The activities may also be used at the beginning and again at the end of the lesson to obtain a pre- and post-connected speech sample.

Family Letter

  • Since home practice is such an integral part of success in therapy, a letter has been provided to send home at the beginning of each lesson.  The letter introduces the phonological process and theme and gives specific ideas for use of the picture cards, rebus story, and sequence story.  It also includes an explanation of the interactive experiences that will be done in therapy and gives suggestions on how to incorporate theme-related activities into home life.

Picture Cards

  • Each lesson includes two pages with ten carefully selected pictures.  These pictures are common vocabulary words that address the phonological process being targeted.  Make two copies of the pages and cut apart the pictures to produce "cards" that can be used in a variety of ways:
    • single word practice
    • articulation drill before and after interactive activities
    • home practice
    • games such as Go Fish and Concentration
    • each lesson also includes specific theme-related ideas for using the picture cards.

Rebus Story

  • This is a theme-related story that incorporates pictures of targeted words.  When presenting the story, help the child name the pictures at the top of the page.  Then read the story while the child "reads" along with the pictures.  When the story becomes familiar, some children will be able to follow along with the pictures and tell the story in their own words.  When the story is mastered in therapy, send it home for more practice.

Sequence Story

  • A four-part sequence story is also a component of each lesson.  These stories provide multiple opportunities for practicing the targeted phonological processes in single words and in connected speech.  The sequence stories can be presented from the page as provided or they may be photocopied and cut apart so that the child can work on logical sequencing skills.
  • Before you tell the story, have the child name and say the target words in each picture.  These words will then be used frequently as you and the child tell the story by describing each picture.
  • You might want to make a "book" with the pictures for the child to "read" to you.  When the sequence story is sufficiently practiced in therapy, send it home for more practice.

We have had fun creating and teaching the lessons from Just for Kids Phonological Processing.  Playing and pretending are important work for children.  We hope your work is fun as you guide your students toward their communication goals.

Lynn and Janet