These activities use middle school content and tone to target classroom language skills in vocabulary, grammar, questions, and following directions.
- Develop language competency
- Keep up with peers in the classroom
- goal-driven activities
- high quality, timeless content
- gradual increase in complexity within and between activities
- application to a wide range of developmental and acquired language disorders
Vocabulary, Grammar, Question Comprehension, and Following Directions—are skill areas those students with language disorders typically struggle with, especially in the classroom setting. A fifth skill area, Using Basic Language Skills, gives students the opportunity to practice a variety of skills in a broader, more curriculum-oriented text.
Define and describe nouns; antonyms and synonym; adjectives and adverbs; multiple-meaning words; context clues; and curricular vocabulary
Regular and irregular plurals; common, proper, and possessive nouns; pronouns; noun-verb agreement; regular and irregular past tense verbs; future tense verbs; adjectives and adverbs; prepositions; and conjunctions
Wh-, how, is/are, can/could, do/does, and if question forms; some/all and always/sometimes/never statements; personal opinion questions; and literal and rhetorical questions
Multistep and sequential directions, written directions, graphs and charts, and true/false statements
Using Basic Language Skills
Synonyms, formulating sentences, completing and expanding paragraphs, and answering and formulating questions from factual paragraphs
Copyright © 1997
The HELP books are all superior products that go the extra mile to help children with special needs. Thank you!
Mary Fratianni, Special Needs Coordinator
Port Jefferson Station, NY
- Effective vocabulary instruction strategies actively engage the student and require higher-level cognitive processing. These strategies include using new words in novel sentences based on connections to prior knowledge, identifying synonyms and antonyms, analyzing word features, and using visual aides (Kester-Phillips, Foote, & Harper, 2008).
- Dockrell, Lindsay, and Connelly (2009) found that adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) showed limited growth in their written language abilities in the middle school years which is associated with limited oral vocabulary development.
- Spoken and written grammatical abilities were found to be quantitatively different in school-aged children with SLI in comparison to age- and language-matched children. Judgment of syntax was a language measure continued in weakness despite other language measures improving within the SLI population (Gillam & Johnston, 1992).
- Five components of instruction needed to address older students who are struggling to read include word study, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and motivation (Roberts, Torgesen, Boardman, & Scammacca, 2008).
- A study by Feng and Powers (2005) found that grammatical mini-lessons targeting students' error patterns resulted in improved short- and long-term accuracy.
HELP for Middle School incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Dockrell, J.E., Lindsay, G., & Connelly, V. (2009). The impact of specific language impairment on adolescents' written text. Exceptional Children, 75(4), 427-446.
Feng, S., & Powers, K. (2005). The short- and long-term effect of explicit grammar instruction on fifth graders' writing. Reading Improvement, 42(2), 67-72.
Gillam, R.B., & Johnston, J. (1992). Spoken and written language relationships in language/learning impaired and normally achieving school-age children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1303-1315.
Kester-Phillips, D.C., Foote, C.J., & Harper, L.J. (2008). Strategies for effective vocabulary instruction. Reading Improvement, 45(2), 62-68.
Roberts, G., Torgesen, J.K., Boardman, A., & Scammacca, N. (2008). Evidence-based strategies for reading instruction of older students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 23(2), 63-69.