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SPARC® R and S
Ages: 5-12   Grades: K-7

Everything you need to remediate /r/ and /s/ is in this book: pretests, auditory stimulation, elicitation techniques, and activities that take students from sounds in isolation to carryover.   


  • Meet articulation goals for r, s, and their blends from syllables to structured conversation
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** This is a Cloud E-Book that is accessible from any device with Internet access. .

Busy clinicians rely on the SPARC series for:

  • loads of pictures
  • lots of practice opportunities
  • convenience and portability
  • use with a variety of therapy approaches
  • systematic progression of activities

The picture-based activities are a springboard for practice at all levels of sound production:   

  • sounds in isolation (r and s)
  • sounds in syllables (r and s)
  • minimal pairs (cluster reduction, cluster substitution, vowelization, distortion, consonant deletion)
  • sounds in all positions of words (r, r blends, s, s blends)
  • sounds in phrases (r, r blends, s, s blends)
  • sounds in sentences (r, r blends, s, s blends)
  • carryover (r, r blends, s, s blends)

SPARC R and S is a huge 280-page compilation of pick-up-and-use activities and includes:

  • pretests for /r/ and /s/
  • auditory stimulation activities
  • elicitation techniques to help establish production of sounds
  • articulation activities packed with practice opportunities

Copyright © 2002

288 pages
  • Speech sound intervention should include assessment, discrimination, and production.  Treatment should facilitate generalization of newly acquired skills to a variety of listening, speaking, and literacy-learning contexts (ASHA, 2004).
  • Speech sound intervention should facilitate correct productions across word-positions and linguistic units (Bernthal & Bankson, 2004).
  • Impairment in phonology and speech production impedes the development of effective communication, language, and/or speech (Taylor-Goh, 2005).

SPARC R and S incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2004). Preferred Practice Patterns for the Profession of Speech-Language Pathology [Preferred Practice Patterns]. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from

Bernthal, J.E., & Bankson, N.W. (2004). Articulation and phonological disorders. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Taylor-Goh, S. (2005). Royal college of speech & language therapists:Clinical guidelines. United Kingdom: Speechmark.


Beverly Plass


Beverly Plass, M.A., CCC-SLP, is a speech-language pathologist in the Irvine, California Unified School District and has a private practice.  She serves children of all ages and disabilities.  Bev enjoys spending time with her two sons and husband, and she likes to go for long bike rides.  She also writes children's books and funny children's poetry.  SPARC R and S is Bev's fifth publication with LinguiSystems.    



The most common speech errors are /r/ and /s/.  Teaching a child how to pronounce these phonemes can be challenging.  The exercises and worksheets in SPARC R and S provide a comprehensive program to enable you to teach clear articulation skills.  This book includes:

  • pretests for /r/ and /s/
  • auditory stimulation activities
  • oral-motor exercises that are prerequisites to /r/ and /s/ production
  • establishment techniques so you can elicit accurate /r/ and /s/ sounds
  • practice worksheets for /r/ and /s/ in isolation, syllables, words, phrases, sentences, and carryover
  • index by additional phonemes (so you can work on two sounds or use one lesson for everyone in your group)
  • index by subject (so you can target language development goals or classroom curriculum topics as well as articulation)

You can customize your therapy plan to suit your child's needs.  For example, if a child correctly pronounces /s/ but demonstrates cluster reduction, start with auditory bombardment and minimal pairs that target /s/ blends.  Then use the worksheets on /s/ blend words, phrases, and sentences.

If the child is not stimulable for the /r/ or /s/ sound, begin with auditory stimulation and oralmotor exercises.  Then proceed through the entire sequence from establishment and isolation through carryover.  Specific establishment techniques for /r/ and /s/ are included in this book.

With SPARC R and S, you'll increase your students' intelligibility and develop their language and thinking skills along the way.