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No-Glamour® Language & Reasoning
Ages: 6-12   Grades: 1-7

Help your students use language to think independently, reason logically, and solve problems.  With these lessons, they'll be able to follow classroom discussions, give relevant answers to questions, and boost their classroom and social confidence.


  • Recognize key characteristics and associate, compare, and contrast ideas and things
  • Learn to classify, understand exclusion statements, and sequence by attribute
  • Use effective language to ask appropriate questions and share information, ideas, explanations, and opinions
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You'll love the expansive range of specific language and reasoning skills in one huge book.  The units are arranged in a developmental hierarchy.  The question types reflect classroom, textbook, and standardized test formats.  There are a variety of learning formats in the task items to help students understand and practice targeted skills. Most of the responses are oral.  A Pretest/Posttest at the beginning of each unit lets you easily identify weaknesses and track progress.

Units in the book are:

  • Classifying
  • Comparing and Contrasting
  • Answering True/False Questions
  • Answering Wh- Questions
  • Predicting Outcomes
  • Determining a Missing Event
  • Sequencing
  • Making and Explaining Inferences
  • Identifying Causes of Events
  • Identifying Problems and Solutions
  • Imagining and Role Projection
  • Criticizing
  • Stating Opinions


Copyright © 2003

312 pages, pretests and posttests, answer key
  • Reasoning skills encourage critical thinking and meta-awareness of internal thought processes.  Reasoning skills support students' logical judgments based on conscious reflection and sensitivity to multiple viewpoints (Little, 2002).
  • Reasoning and critical thinking are necessary skills for competence across the curriculum.  They require students to examine, relate, and analyze all aspects of a problem or situation.  Students engaged in critical thinking must make associations that connect problems with their prior knowledge (Pellegrini, 1995).
  • Questioning is the core of critical reflection.  It prompts students to engage in a research process that fosters higher-order thinking skills and social-moral attitudes (Daniel et al., 2005).
  • Explicitly teaching and reinforcing inference-making leads to better outcomes in overall text comprehension, text engagement, and metacognitive thinking (Borné, Cox, Hartgering, & Pratt, 2005).

No-Glamour Language & Reasoning incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.


Borné, L., Cox, J., Hartgering, M., & Pratt, E. (2005). Making inferences from text [Overview]. Dorchester, MA: Project for School Innovation.

Daniel, M.F., Lafortune, L., Pallascio, R., Splitter, L., Slade, C., & de la Garza, T. (2005). Modeling the development process of dialogical critical thinking in pupils aged 10 to 12 years. Communication Education, 54(4), 334-354.

Little, C. (2002). Reasoning as a key component of language arts curricula. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 13(2), 52-59.

Pellegrini, J. (1995). Developing thinking and reasoning skills in primary learners using detective fiction. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, 1. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from


Linda Bowers, Rosemary Huisingh, Carolyn LoGiudice, Jane Orman


Linda Bowers, M.A., SLP, is a LinguiSystems co-owner and speech-language pathologist with extensive experience serving preschool and school-aged children.  Her professional interests include critical thinking and language abilities of children and adults.

Rosemary Huisingh, M.A., SLP, is a LinguiSystems co-owner and has served the communication needs of school-aged children for many years.  Her special interests include childhood language, vocabulary, and thinking skills.

Carolyn LoGiudice, M.S., CCC-SLP, wrote and edited products and tests for LinguiSystems for 25 years, incorporating her previous experience as an SLP in school and clinic settings.  She is now retired and savoring time with her family, friends, and hobbies.

Jane Orman, M.A., CCC-SLP, is a speech-language pathologist who serves in the customer care area at LinguiSystems.  She has extensive school experience and particular interest in the language demands on students in regard to assessment, critical thinking, and the school curricula.

Linda, Rosemary, Carolyn, and Jane have co-authored several tests, therapy kits, and games for LinguiSystems.


From infancy through adulthood, language and reasoning skills play a critical role in success or failure in dealing with life's varied experiences.  We all need to think independently and reason logically to solve problems, determine causes of events, and predict outcomes in daily life.

As educators, we witness the significant problems that result when students lack logical thinking and adequate expressive language skills.  We observe preschoolers who have trouble answering basic questions or who don't associate simple cause-and-effect relationships.  We see students at the elementary and secondary level experience difficulty participating in classroom discussions.  They respond with tangential and irrelevant answers.  They approach everyday problems without applying logic or appropriate organization.  Deficient reasoning skills also affect interpersonal relationships.  Students who fail to generalize from previous learning or experience remain at risk in dealing with school and life in general.

We developed this program to teach students specific reasoning and expressive language skills.  We have included a variety of formats to help students understand and practice targeted reasoning and expressive language skills.

Each unit in No-Glamour Language & Reasoning addresses a specific thinking skill area.  The units are sequenced in a hierarchy that reflects normal development of these skills.  The question types reflect classroom, textbook, and standardized test formats.  Most of the responses are oral in order to give students practice in speaking their thoughts.  You may want to alter the response mode to have your students respond in writing to improve their written expression.  Writing may also help some students refine their thinking skills during the process of generating and writing their responses.

There is a Pretest/Posttest at the beginning of each unit.  We recommend a 90% accuracy rate to consider a unit skill (or an individual task) mastered.  An accuracy rate of 60%-89% suggests that training in the skill is appropriate.  If a student achieves an accuracy rate below 60% on either a pretest or any of the unit tasks, we suggest reviewing lower-level units or tasks before presenting tasks in the deficient skill area again.

The beginning units of No-Glamour Language & Reasoning teach students to organize their thoughts about attributes, the foundations for higher-level thinking skills.  Students learn to recognize key characteristics and to associate, compare, and contrast things and ideas.  Students receive extensive practice in classifying, comparing, understanding exclusion statements, and sequencing by attribute.

The later units of this book teach students the thinking and language skills they need to ask and answer questions appropriately.  True/false questions teach students to think through questions before responding.  Higher-level questions teach students to use effective language to share information, ideas, explanations, and opinions.  Learning to ask questions gives students experience in manipulating language to formulate the most appropriate questions to ask in various situations.

The Answer Key lists sample answers where appropriate; answers for oral exercises are printed on the stimuli pages.  In many cases, more than one answer may be correct.  Accept all reasonable answers as correct, taking advantage of natural opportunities to support the breadth of experience and information your students bring to their learning.  Students who have been conditioned to expect only a "right/wrong" judgment for answers may need encouragement to think of more than one "right" answer, or to accept another student's answer as correct when it differs from their own "correct" answers.  Such encouragement may help students take other people's perspectives more readily.

When a student gives what appears to be an incorrect answer, probe the student to understand what prompted the answer.  Use patterns of incorrect answers as valuable diagnostic information about where you need to provide additional specific training.  Whenever stimuli encourage independent thinking or analysis, encourage students to develop their own opinions and standards to evaluate ideas.

Some of the worksheets in this book include a question or two at the bottom of the page.  Answers to these questions are not provided because they will vary according to personal experiences, values, and opinions.

We hope No-Glamour Language & Reasoning helps your students acquire logical thinking skills and apply them to their future experiences.  Such application will boost their success in school, social relationships, and everyday problem solving.  Their self-confidence will increase as they recognize they can think and reason for themselves and can communicate their thoughts effectively to others.

Linda, Rosemary, Carolyn, and Jane