The TOSS-I assesses key, age-progresssive semantic skills in upper elementary and junior high students. Test results help you understand why your student is struggling academically.
Use this test to diagnose deficits in receptive and expressive semantic skills in students after third grade. Students who struggle to understand classroom directions and lessons and to work independently may have a disorder in semantic skills. The TOSS-I uses curriculum vocabulary and curricular themes that appeal to nine- to thirteen-year-olds.
The Toss-I surveys ten semantic and vocabulary tasks through five receptive subtests and five expressive subtests in the skill areas of labels, categories, attributes, functions, and definitions. Nineteen realistic illustrations and test questions represent themes common to everyday life. Test items emphasize vocabulary that is meaningful to the experiences of late elementary and middle school students.
- Subtest A: Identifying Labels—point to an item named
- Subtest B: Identifying Categories—point to a member of a category that is named
- Subtest C: Identifying Attributes—given an attribute, point to the appropriate item
- Subtest D: Identifying Functions—point to an item whose functions have been described
- Subtest E: Identifying Definitions—point to an item that has been defined
- Subtest F: Stating Labels—name an item in a picture
- Subtest G: Stating Categories—given three members of a category, name the category
- Subtest H: Stating Attributes—describe an item by stating one of its attributes
- Subtest I: Stating Functions—describe what an item does or what we do with the item
- Subtest J: Stating Definitions—define an item
The test should only be administered by a trained professional familiar with children's language disorders (e.g., speech-language pathologist, psychologist, teacher of students with learning disabilities, special education consultant).
- The student looks at a picture and responds to questions presented verbally by the examiner (about the picture).
- Both receptive and expressive tasks are presented for each picture.
- Each subtest is presented in its entirety to every student.
- 25-30 minutes
Scoring/Types of Scores
- A score of 1 or 0 is assigned to each response.
- Acceptable responses are listed on the test form.
- Examples of both acceptable and unacceptable responses are provided in the Scoring Standards section of the Examiner's Manual.
- Raw scores are converted to:
- Age Equivalents
- Percentile Ranks
- Standard Scores
Discussion of Performance
The Discussion of Performance section in the Examiner's Manual helps you bridge from assessment to treatment. Academic manifestations of poor test performance are described. Remediation guidelines for each subtest/skill level are included.
Standardization and Statistics
The TOSS-I was standardized on 2,192 subjects. The subjects represented the current National Census for race, gender, age, and educational placement.
- Reliability—established by the use of test-retest, SEM, reliability based on item homogeneity (KR20) and inter-rater analyses for the total test at all age levels. The average reliability coefficient is .93 for the total test and the SEM is .49.
- Validity—established by the use of internal consistency and contrasted groups analyses. Point Biserial correlations (measures the relationship between passing an item and performance on the whole test) were at acceptable levels. The Toss-I significantly discriminates between subjects with typical language development and subjects with language disorders receiving special services.
- Race/Socioeconomic Group Difference Analyses—conducted at the item and subtest levels. Tests included Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), z-tests, Chi Square Analysis, and Analysis of Variance F. Minimal racial differences were found at the item level.
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