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Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Associations
Ages: 9-13   Grades: 4-8

Teach seven association strategies to improve vocabulary learning and word recall.  In-depth practice with clear, concise directions helps students understand the many ways words are related.      


  • Use a variety of strategies to make word associations
  • Understand and use a rich vocabulary
  • Meet academic goals for curricular vocabulary
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Written in the successful format of the Spotlight series, the book has:

  • age-appropriate, curricular vocabulary
  • gradual progression in difficulty to build student success
  • light demands for spelling and writing
  • a pretest/posttest

One-page lessons with a variety of interesting formats teach students:     

  • that words are associated in many different ways
  • to recognize which words from a group are associated
  • to explain how words are associated
  • to exclude words that are not associated with others in a group
  • to make and explain word associations by category, function, description, parts, word relationships, part of speech, and topic

You may purchase Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Associations individually or as part of the 6-book Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 set.  The 6-book set consists of:

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Antonyms

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Associations

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Multiple-Meaning Words

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Synonyms

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Word Origins


Copyright © 2005

40-pages, pretest/posttest, answer key
  • Successful reading comprehension is highly correlated with vocabulary development (Pressley, 2000).
  • "The importance of vocabulary in reading achievement has been recognized for more than half a century."  (National Reading Panel, 2000).
  • A systematic approach to teaching vocabulary, including direct and indirect instruction, teaches students that vocabulary is important for learning language and for reading (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002).
  • Vocabulary instruction is a cornerstone of reading comprehension. Repeated exposures to words expands students' vocabulary and improves scores on standardized tests (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986).

Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Associations incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.


Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. Solving problems in the teaching of literacy. New York: Guilford Press.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Pressley, M.L. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. III). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Stahl, S.A., & Fairbanks, M.M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56, 71-110.


Carolyn LoGiudice, Kate LaQuay


Carolyn LoGiudice, M.S., CCC-SLP, was a speech-language clinician in school, clinic, and private settings before joining LinguiSystems in 1984.  She has co-authored many materials with LinguiSystems, including The WORD Test, No-Glamour Vocabulary Cards, The Test of Semantic Skills (TOSS-P and TOSS-I), and the All-Star Vocabulary game.

Kate LaQuay, J.D., became part of LinguiSystems' extended family more than 20 years ago when her mother, Carolyn LoGiudice, joined the company.  Now a mother herself, Kate has co-authored several LinguiSystems products, including U.S. History A Reading Comprehension Book, U.S. Government A Reading Comprehension Game, and Spotlight on Vocabulary Levels 1 and 2.  Previously, she practiced law for six years in Los Angeles.


All students need to expand their working vocabularies.  Some students have a natural facility for language and semantic relationships, enabling them to enlarge their vocabulary almost effortlessly.  Simply reading, listening, and talking seem to boost these students' vocabulary skills.

Many other students need to exert conscious energy to understand and recall an increasingly diverse vocabulary.  Some of them are poor or reluctant readers.  Other students have limited exposure to a rich variety of spoken English.  Still others have language-learning disabilities, attention disorders, or ineffective systems for storing and retrieving vocabulary.  All of these students can benefit from specific vocabulary exposure and instruction.  They can improve their vocabulary skills through conscious attention and guided learning.

The main goal of Spotlight on Vocabulary books is to help students recognize and use specific strategies to enrich their skills for understanding and using an increasingly rich vocabulary.  Associations, Level 2 teaches students to recognize associations between words and that organizing their vocabularies via word associations enables them to store and retrieve words readily.  These are the student objectives of this book:

  • to understand that words are associated with each other in many different ways
  • to recognize which words from a group are associated
  • to explain how words are associated
  • to exclude words that are not associated with others in a group
  • to make and explain word associations

Here are some guidelines for doing the activities in this book with your students:

  • Have your students take the Pretest/Posttest before they begin doing the activities in this book.  When they have completed the book, have them retake the test and compare the results to their original scores.
  • Use a multisensory approach to introduce the topic of word associations.  Ask your students to think of at least one way they are associated with other students in the group; for example, perhaps the students live near each other, have the same PE teacher, have brown eyes, or have a similar hobby or interest.  Then point out various pairs of objects in the room and ask volunteers to give ways the objects are associated with each other.  For example, a map and a globe are associated because they both show locations and directions.
  • Give your students lots of practice in both identifying and explaining word associations.  Be a good role model yourself by explaining word associations you notice as you present various lessons and activities to your students.
  • Many common English words have more than one meaning.  As you do the activities in this book, be alert for multiple-meaning words and highlight these meanings for your students.
  • Bring in short news articles or school announcements.  Work with your students to list all the words you can that are associated with each item, explaining the associations.  Likewise, bring a picture of a famous person or place and ask your students to list and explain the words that could be associated with that picture.
  • After presenting a worksheet, encourage your students to create their own association tasks using the same pattern as the worksheet.  Help them incorporate vocabulary words from their current academic lessons and texts to give them practice with these essential words.
  • Make a set of flash cards for vocabulary words your students are learning in an academic area.  Have your students take turns associating pairs or groups of words among the cards, explaining each association.  Encourage your students to associate these words in more than one way (antonyms, synonyms, word parts, similar sounds/spellings, word origins, parts of speech, etc.).
  • Cut out ads from magazines or newspapers.  Have your students work in small groups to identify word associations across two or three ads per group.  Have them explain these associations to the class.
  • Use word webs or other graphic organizers to introduce new topics you introduce to your students.  A blank template is included  in this book for your convenience.

We hope Spotlight on Vocabulary Level 2 Associations is a big hit with you and your students!

Carolyn and Kate