Find out if your adolescent's academic and social underachievement has a linguistic basis. This diagnostic test of expressive vocabulary and semantics assesses students' facility with language and word meaning.
The Word Test 2 Adolescent helps you identify the semantic weaknesses that hinder academic, social, and vocational success. Test results show you why your students struggle with words and meanings of language, fail to adequately interpret new content, and use nondescriptive language.
The Word Test 2 Adolescent measures a student's facility with language and word meaning using common and unique contexts. The test surveys six semantic and vocabulary skill areas reflective of curriculum vocabulary and everyday language usage. Each of the six subtests is comprised of 15 items.
- Associations—choose one semantically-unrelated word from among four and explain the choice in relation to the common category of the other three words
- Synonyms—give a one-word synonym for each stimulus word
- Semantic Absurdities—identify and repair an absurd statement
- Antonyms—give a one-word opposite for each stimulus word
- Definitions—define words
- Flexible Word Use—give multiple meanings for words
The test should only be administered by a trained professional familiar with language disorders (e.g., speech-language pathologist, psychologist, teacher of the learning disabled, special education consultant).
- Each subtest begins with a demonstration item
- All test items are presented verbally in a conversational style to the students
- Each task is presented in its entirety to every student
- 30 minutes
Scoring/Types of Scores
- A score of 1 is given for a correct word choice and a correct reason
- A score of 0 is given for a correct word choice followed by an incorrect reason
- A score of 0 is given for an incorrect word choice
- Allowable prompts and acceptable responses are listed on the test form
- Raw scores for each subtest and the total test can be converted to:
- Age Equivalents
- Percentile Ranks
- Standard Scores
Discussion of Performance
The Discussion of Performance section in the Examiner's Manual guides the examiner to make appropriate and educationally-relevant recommendations for remediation based on a clear understanding of each subtest. Subskills for each task area are delineated and instructional suggestions are offered.
Standardization and Statistics
The Word Test 2 Adolescent was standardized on 1,692 subjects. Demographics reflect the national school population from the 2000 National Census for race, gender, age, and educational placement.
- Reliability—established by the use of test-retest and internal consistency methods. Reliability coefficient for the total test was highly satisfactory at .89. SEM for the total test was strong at 5.50. Internal consistency (KR20 reliability coefficients) was highly satisfactory for all tasks and the total test.
- Validity—established by the use of content validity and internal consistency analyses. Contrasted groups analysis shows the test clearly discriminates subjects with typical language development from subjects with language disorders for every task and the total test at all age levels. Task intercorrelations and average correlations between the tasks and the total test ranged from .89 to .93 across all age levels.
- Race/Socioeconomic Group Difference Analyses—conducted at the item and subtest levels. Differences at the item level were analyzed utilizing z-tests for racial differences. Differences at the subtest level were analyzed utilizing Chi Square Analysis and Analysis of Variance F-tests. There were no consistent differences in racial performance.
Copyright © 2005
- Students need to understand semantic connections among words. It may be necessary to target understanding of basic concepts that underpin the vocabulary required to access the curriculum (Taylor-Goh, 2005).
- Vocabulary instruction within the curriculum is vital for adolescents with language disorders. As students improve their vocabulary skills, other vital school skills such as executive functions, problem solving, expository text, and social skills will also improve (Novak, 2002).
- Fisher and Blachowicz (2005) found semantic connections among words, including instruction on synonyms, antonyms, and word classes, is beneficial for significant gains in vocabulary development among struggling elementary readers and English language learners.
- Association is a powerful way of connecting new vocabulary words to well-established vocabulary (Bromley, 2007).
- Assessment and intervention for adolescents with language disorders need to specifically teach them new knowledge and skills in functional contexts for authentic reading, writing, listening, speaking, and thinking purposes (ASHA, 2001).
The WORD Test 2 Adolescent incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2001). Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents. Retrieved August 23, 2011, from www.asha.org/docs/pdf/GL2001-00062.pdf
Bromley, K. (2007). Nine things every teacher should know about words and vocabulary instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(7), 528-537.
Fisher, P.J., & Blachowicz, C.L.Z. (2005). Vocabulary instruction in a remedial setting. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21, 281-300.
Novak, J.M. (2002). Improving communication in adolescents with language/learning disorders: Clinical considerations and adolescent skills. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 29, 79-90.
Taylor-Goh, S. (2005). Royal college of speech & language therapists: Clinical guidelines. United Kingdom: Speechmark.