Find out why your student has a language difficulty, where the breakdown occurs, and where to begin remediation. The LPT 3 Elementary will identify those students with subtle language problems who "pass" other language tests.
Use the Language Processing Test 3 Elementary (LPT 3) to diagnose language processing disorders in underachieving children. The test evaluates the ability to attach increasingly more meaning to information received to then formulate an expressive response.
The skills evaluated are discrete and carefully controlled, beginning with simple tasks and progressively increasing the language processing demand placed upon the student. This hierarchical approach ensures evaluation of prerequisite skills for increased processing demand. There are two pretests and six subtests. Each subsequent subtest builds on the skills previously evaluated. The test items are valid clinical indicators of the ability to attach meaning to language.
- Pretest 1: Labeling
Name pictures with a one-word response.
- Pretest 2: Stating Functions
State a verb that describes the function of a specific noun.
- Subtest A: Associations
Name an additional item that is typically associated with a specific noun.
- Subtest B: Categorization
Name at least three items that belong to the specific category presented.
- Subtest C: Similarities
Compare two items and state the similar characteristics that place them in the same category.
- Subtest D: Differences
Contrast two items and state the differences between them.
- Subtest E: Multiple Meanings
State three definitions for each stimulus word. Each stimulus word is presented in three different sentence contexts. To receive full credit, the student must provide an acceptable definition for two of the three sentences.
- Subtest F: Attributes
Spontaneously describe a specific noun. Success on this task is evaluated by the number of different attribute areas, or depth of processing, that the student addresses without the use of prompts.
This test should be administered by a trained professional (e.g., speech-language pathologist, psychologist, teacher of the learning disabled, special education consultant).
- All pretests and subtests are administered to each student with one exception—the Multiple Meanings subtests should not be administered to 5-0 through 5-11 year olds.
- Directions are read aloud to the student. All responses are verbal.
- 35 minutes
Test Scoring /Types of Scores
For Pretest 1, Pretest 2, and Subtests A through E, a correct response is scored as 1. An incorrect response is scored as 0. In some subtests, the examiner writes in the student's response for comparison to the scoring standards. For subtest F, 1 point is given for every attribute category stated appropriately by the student.
- Raw scores are converted to:
- Age Equivalents
- Percentile Ranks
- Standard Scores
Discussion of Performance
The Discussion of Performance section in the Examiner's Manual helps you bridge from assessment to treatment. Academic manifestations of poor test performance are described. Remediation guidelines for each subtest/skill level are included.
Standardization and Statistics
The Language Processing Test 3 Elementary was normed on 1,313 subjects. These subjects represented the national school population from the latest National Census for race, gender, age, and educational placement.
- Reliability—established by the use of the following for all subtests and the total test at all age levels:
- Inter-Rater Reliability
- Reliability Based on Item Homogeneity (KR20)
Reliability tests were highly satisfactory for the total test at all age levels.
- Validity—established by the use of content validity which reflects the important language processing skills and developmentally-appropriate language demands of elementary school-aged students.
- Contrast Groups (t-values)
- Point Biserial Correlations
- Subtest Intercorrelations
- Correlations Between Subtests and Total Test
Contrast Groups (t-values) comparisons show the test has a highly satisfactory ability to differentiate subjects with language disorders from subjects developing language normally. Combined subtest intercorrelations reveal acceptable levels across all age levels.
- Race/Socioeconomic Group Difference Analyses—conducted at the item and subtest levels. The analyses show no significant difference when comparing race and minimal differences when comparing SES on the LPT 3. Tests included:
- Chi Square analysis
- Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) F-tests
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- Neuropsychological studies provide convincing evidence that semantic knowledge is organized categorically and functionally and these are important elements of semantic knowledge. Semantic knowledge is thought to drive the processing of meaning in language (Rhodes & Donaldson, 2008).
- When information shares a semantic relationship and is associated, meaningful information is first extracted from the association between items (Rhodes & Donaldson, 2008).
- Evidence clearly supports that brain processing patterns and performance occur in a progressive order. Constructive cognitive tasks are related in a consistent and predictable manner to Luria's brain functioning theory (Languis & Miller, 1992).
LPT 3 Elementary incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Languis, M.L., & Miller, D.C. (1992). Luria's brain functioning theory: A model for research in cognitive psychophysiology. Educational Psychology, 27, 493-511.
Rhodes, S.M., & Donaldson, D.I. (2008). Association and not semantic relationships elicit the N400 effect: Electrophysiological evidence from an explicit language comprehension task. Psychophysiology, 45, 50-59.