Evaluate and treat childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) using principles of motor learning with an emphasis on speech movements and syllable shapes.
- Accurately diagnose CAS
- Effectively treat CAS using the eight principles of motor learning
- Effectively incorporate language goals into therapy for CAS
The authors have combined their years of practical experience with current research to give you a handbook on childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) that tells you how to:
- evaluate and differentially diagnose CAS
- treat CAS based on its unique characteristics
- develop basic communication—learning skills such as joint attention and interaction, turn-taking, imitation, on-task behavior, and increasing vocalizations and verbalizations
- progress clients through eight levels of intervention to develop intelligble speech
- incorporate prosody and language goals into every level of therapy
- provide effective multisensory cues
An eight-level hierarchy of speech tasks emphasizes speech movements and sound sequences based on principles of motor learning:
- Level 1: Stabilize existing vowels and consonant sounds
- Level 2: Sequence established vowels and consonants in CV and VC syllables
- Level 3: Teach new vowel and consonant sounds
- Level 4: Produce CVCV and VCVC syllable sequences (emphasis on using established CV and VC syllables from Level 2)
- Level 5: Close established CV and VC syllables with an established consonant sound to produce CVC words
- Level 6: Produce multisyllabic words from stabilized sounds, syllables, and CVC words
- Level 7: Produce consonant clusters and blends in words
- Level 8: Produce phrases and sentences (sequencing syllables to form phrases and sentences begins as early as level 2)
Copy the student activity pages or print them from the FREE CD. Extra helps include:
- specific therapy techniques outlined step-by-step with visual helps
- informal evaluation tools
- reproducible lesson pages and pictures
- tracking chart
- pictures and directions for consonant hand signals
- techniques to facilitate correct consonant sound production
- ideas for making fun practice materials
Copyright © 2006
The Source for Childhood Apraxia of Speech helped me set up a methodical and multi-sensory approach for treating a child with severe apraxia of speech. By using the hand signals for consonant sounds with the consonant production hierarchy, we made more progess than I anticipated. It was also helpful to rearrange my session schedule so she was seen more times a week for a shorter length of time during each session. Before reading this book, I felt at a loss for where to start because there were many sounds and consonant-vowel combinations that were not being produced. By having a guideline, as defined in the book, I was able to provide effective treatment, provide effective exercises, provide parents with relevant homework activities to reinforce her skills, and provide a multisensory approach that she could continue to use in all settings. It was a tremendous help, and without reading this book, I do not believe we would have made the same amount of progress.
Erica Haraldsen, SLP
- The principles of motor learning theory and intensity of speech-motor practice are frequently emphasized in effective treatment programs for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) (ASHA, 2007).
- A multisensory approach to treatment is often recommended. The use of touch cues, sign language, visual prompts, and pictures have been described as very effective for children with CAS (ASHA, 2007).
- Hallmark characteristics of CAS are vowel errors, variability in speech productions, and prosodic differences (Jacks, Marquardt, & Davis, 2005).
- Strand and Stoeckel (2004) recommend that CAS intervention allows the child high levels of success, multiple repetitions of target word forms, and makes uses of proprioceptive input. The clinician should implement repetition, tactile or gestural cues, and delayed modeling to allocate appropriate speech productions. The use of a systematic hierarchy is needed but always working toward functional, intelligible, independent speech productions.
- It is important to target syllable awareness and production in treating the speech of children with CAS (Jacks, Marquardt, & Davis, 2005).
The Source for Childhood Apraxia of Speech incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical Report]. Retrieved July 2, 2010, from www.asha.org/docs/pdf/TR2007-00278.pdf
Jacks, A., Marquardt, T.P., & Davis, B.L. (2005). Consonant and syllable patterns in childhood apraxia of speech: Developmental change in three children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 39(6), 424-441.
Strand, E.A., & Stoeckel, R. (2004, October). Differential diagnosis and treatment of childhood apraxia of speech. Paper presented at a Hendrix Foundation/CASANA workshop in St. Paul, MN.