Determine if your student has difficulty with auditory processing, difficulty with language processing, or a combination of the two.
The DSTP is the only test of its kind to differentiate among the various levels of auditory and language processing and identifies areas for referral or further evaluation.
The DSTP is a screening instrument to assist professionals in determining if additional diagnostic assessment is warranted and the specific areas of focus for further testing.
The subtest areas of the DSTP represent the neurological continuum of processing acoustic stimuli.
Critical skills are evaluated in three major levels: acoustic, acoustic-linguistic, and linguistic.
Test vocabulary was carefully chosen to be within the linguistic capabilities of the target population.
Level One – Acoustic Subtests
- A: Dichotic Digits
Binaural integration skills are sampled at a cortical level. The student listens to four numbers presented simultaneously, two to each ear, and repeats them. The task relies upon the ability of the two hemispheres to communicate with each other.
- B: Temporal Patterning
This subtest examines right hemisphere-based auditory pattern recognition skills. The student is asked to recognize acoustic patterns of tone sequences and identify which tones are high and low.
- C: Auditory Discrimination
This subtest probes left-hemisphere-based acoustic analysis skills. The student discriminates and repeats nonsense syllables presented within a background of steady-state noise.
Level Two – Acoustic-Linguistic Subtests
- Subtest D: Phonemic Manipulation
This subtest consists of three tasks to see if the student can discriminate sound components within a linguistic signal: recognizing the number of discrete sounds in words, blending discrete phonemes into a word, and changing or modifying specific discrete phonemes.
- Subtest E: Phonic Manipulation
The initial stages of sound-symbol association are examined with three tasks: spelling words with letter tiles, synthesizing sounds into a correctly spelled word, and modifying the visual representation of sounds heard.
Level Three – Linguistic Subtests
- Subtest F: Antonyms
Examine your student's acquisition of the semantic language concept of opposite by asking him to supply the opposite meaning of a word. This discrete language task requires quick and accurate retrieval of words.
- Subtest G: Prosodic Interpretation
This subtest requires the student to attach meaning beyond the words spoken. The student "reads between the lines" to determine the sincerity of the message.
- Subtest H: Language Organization
Examine the ability to retrieve language ideas, organize thoughts, and recognize salient aspects of a message. The student hears clues and uses them to generate a response. Then, the student looks at a picture and generates clues that are focused and pertinent.
This screening test should be administered only by a trained professional familiar with the differential aspects of auditory and language skills involved neurologically in processing tasks.
- The DSTP is administered via directions presented by the narrator on a CD. Present each task and every item to the student. Basals and ceilings are not used.
- Subtests A, B, and C require both the test examiner and the student to wear headphones. A Y-cord adapter, included with the test, allows the examiner and the student to hear the instructions, demo items, and test items.
- Subtests D, E, F, and G use the CD without the headphones.
- Subest H uses the CD (without headphones) and eight picture cards.
- 35 minutes
Scoring/Types of Scores
Each item is scored as a 1 or 0. Scores for each Subtest are totaled and compared to the Subtest Pass/Fail Raw Scores to determine if further testing is needed. Means, medians, and standard scores are in the Test Manual.
Discussion of Performance
The Discussion of Performance section found in the Examiner's Manual was developed to guide the examiner to make appropriate and relevant recommendations for further testing.
This section includes information on how to interpret test results and a summary of performance possibilities the clinician can use to make decisions regarding a subsequent course of action.
Recommendations for the types of additional evaluations are given based on poor performance in each subtest. Poor performance on each subtest is related to the difficulties you might observe the student having in the classroom.
Standardization and Statistics
The DSTP was normed on 509 subjects that represented the 2000 National Census for race, gender, age, and educational placement.
- Reliability—determined by the test-retest method and revealed satisfactory levels for all tasks at all age levels. Reliability tests include: SEM and Test-retest.
- Validity—established by the use of contrasted groups which revealed good test validity for the three auditory subtests. Biserial Correlations and Subtest and Total Test intercorrelations were not reported as each subtest is considered to assess a discreet skill of processing along a hierarchy and should not be scored as a measure of performance on the whole test.
- Content Validity—established after an extensive review of available tests and literature which indicated that the particular subtests and skills selected were those reflective of auditory language processing demands of elementary-aged students.
Copyright © 2006
Warning: CHOKING HAZARD - Small parts, not for children under 3 yrs.
- According to ASHA (2005) (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to difficulties in the processing of auditory information in the central nervous system (CNS) as demonstrated by poor performance in one or more of the following skills:
- sound localization and lateralization
- auditory discrimination
- auditory pattern recognition
- temporal aspects of audition, including temporal integration, temporal discrimination, temporal ordering, and temporal masking
- auditory performance in competing acoustic signals (including dichotic listening)
- auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals
- The diagnosis of processing disorders is based on the underlying principle of neuropsychology as all behavior is mediated by the brain and central nervous system; the study of brain-behavior relationships accepts a causal association between the two. It is important to have knowledge of the mediating structures when perceiving functional impairments in behavior (Hynd & Obrzut, 1981).
- Luria (1970) showed a model of brain organization that states the brain is organized so that each structure has a highly specific role, but all structures are under coordinated control. This functional unit organization theory stresses that the areas all work together, as well as independently.
Differential Screening Test for Processing incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2005). (Central) auditory processing disorders—The role of the audiologist [Position Statement]. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from www.asha.org/docs/pdf/PS2005-00114.pdf
Hynd, G., & Obrzut, J. (1981). Neuropsychological assessment and the school-age child. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Luria, A.R. (1970). The functional organization of the brain. Scientific American, 222, 66-78.