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The Source® for TBI Children and Adolescents
Ages: Birth-18   Grades: Birth-Adult

Every child and adolescent who has a brain injury presents with different deficits and has a different course of recovery.   Use this book to understand the complex effects of childhood TBI on cognitive, language, and behavioral development; on social and family relationships; and plan effective interventions. 


  • Formulate realistic and functional treatment goals
  • Help the child with TBI function successfully in the classroom and community
  • Understand how TBI affects the child's family and how to respond effectively
  • Screen for neurocognitive functioning with the LANSE-C and LANSE-A
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** This is a Cloud E-Book that is accessible from any device with Internet access. .

This authoritative text by Drs. Lebby and Asbell is informative and concise without being oversimplified.  

Lots of illustrations and real-life examples help you understand the main aspects of brain injury in addition to the more subtle features that result from brain damage.  It includes two popular evidence-based assessment tools, the Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children (LANSE-C) and the Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Adolescents (LANSE-A). 

Chapters in the book cover:

  • brain anatomy—the parts of the brain and their functions and the cranial nerves and their functions 
  • brain development and cognition—developmental milestones and an overview of how brain injury affects normal brain and cognitive development
  • traumatic brain injury—what happens to the brain after an injury based on the type of trauma, level and number of injuries, and medical complications
  • TBI-related language disorders—the primary symptoms of fourteen types of communication/language disorders
  • TBI-related frontal lobe disorders—an overview of frontal lobe functions such as executive functions, attention deficits, reasoning, lack of insight, and more
  • TBI-related motor, visual, and learning and memory disorders—the terminology of and conditions resulting from damage to the motor cortex, visual cortex, and diffuse damage to the cortex
  • general assessment issues—special considerations for testing and the interpretation of test results
  • neurocognitive assessment—screening with the:
      • Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children (LANSE-C)
      • Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Adolescents (LANSE-A)

        The two screening tools assess these areas: general functioning, level of consciousness, orientation, attention, langauge, reasoning, memory, object use, visual-spatial ability, visual-motor integration, and visual neglect.

        Sample pages of the screening instruments may be seen by clicking on the Sample Pages tab above.

  • considerations for formal testing and assessment of general functioning
  • recovery issues—processes, predictors, and patterns of recovery; issues in resumption of activities and transitions
  • intervention—prioritizing goals, choosing therapy activities, and accommodations for specific deficits
  • family issues—helping the family adjust and dealing with attitudes and emotions  

Copy the client activity pages or print them from the FREE CD.

Copyright © 2007

224-page book plus a CD of an additional 77 printable pages in PDF format (printable LANSE-C and LANSE-A protocols and stimulus books)

Drs. Lebby and Asbell have co-authored a well-organized, current volume on traumatic brain injury and its sequelae in children and adolescents.  The information provided within the text is well-founded within the current research regarding neurolinguistics.  They provide a wealth of up-to-date information that teachers and clinicians will find useful and informative.  The chapter on Language Disorders is exemplary, with its focus on practicality and its detailed examples of the various aphasia syndromes.  This book is an excellent resource and will be a welcome addition to any clinician's library.

Carol Giovacchini, SLP
Madera, CA

  • Assessment needs to be ongoing, sensitive to real-world contexts, and collaborative (Ylvisaker, Szekeres, & Feeney, 2008).
  • The hallmarks of traumatic brain injury include impairments in memory, organization, speed of thinking, attention and concentration, affective control and irritability, motivation, judgment, and socialization (Hutchison & Lebby, 2005).
  • A review of literature shows that children who appear to have recovered from brain injury may later exhibit cognitive, socio-emotional, or behavioral deficits due to damage of developing processes.  This review supports a developmental approach to intervention with children with TBI (Gil, 2003).
  • When injury takes place during sensitive developmental periods, some deficits may not present until several years later in a child's life, when the functions were expected to mature naturally.  Later deficits frequently include difficulties with executive functions, such as foresight, hindsight, planning, organization, and the conceptualization of abstract concepts (Hutchison & Lebby, 2005; Ewing-Cobbs, Barnes, & Fletcher, 2003).
  • Family involvement has a positive influence on therapy results for children with TBI (Braga, DuPuz, & Ylvisaker, 2005).
  • Speech-language pathologists' roles in the treatment of individuals with cognitive-communication disorders include training discrete cognitive processes, teaching specific functional skills, and developing compensatory strategies and support systems (ASHA, 2005).

The Source for TBI Children & Adolescents incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2005). Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists in diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of individuals with cognitive-communication disorders [Position Statement]. Retrieved April 7, 2009, from

Braga, L.W., DuPuz, A.C., & Ylvisaker, M. (2005). Direct clinician delivered versus family supported rehabilitation of children with traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial. Brain Injury, 19(10), 819-831.

Ewing-Cobbs, L., Barnes, M.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (2003). Early brain injury in children: Development and reorganization of cognitive function. Developmental Neuropsychology, 24, 669-704.

Gil, A.M. (2003). Neurocognitive outcomes following pediatric brain injury: A developmental approach. Journal of School Psychology, 41(5), 337-353.

Hutchison, H.T., & Lebby, P.C. (2005). Traumatic encephalopathies. In R.B. David (Ed.), Child and adolescent neurology (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

Ylvisaker, M., Szekeres, S.F., & Feeney, T. (2008). Communication disorders associated with traumatic brain injury. In R. Chapey (Ed.), Language intervention strategies in aphasia and related neurogenic communication disorders (5th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.



Paul Lebby, Shana Asbell


Paul C. Lebby, Ph.D., ABPS, received both his B.A. and his Ph.D. at the University of California Berkeley, with his studies being focused on human clinical neuroscience.  His doctoral degree emphasized cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychology.  Dr. Lebby received his clinical training at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center where he completed several years of research, his pre-doctoral internship, and a post-doctoral fellowship within the Department of Neurology.  He is board certified in forensic neuropsychology, and is frequently retained to give expert testimony regarding traumatic brain injury and recovery.

Currently, Dr. Lebby is on active medical staff at Children's Hospital Central California, in the Department of Medical Rehabilitation/Neuropsychology and at UCSF Medical Center in the Department of Neurology.  Over the many years that Dr. Lebby has been in clinical practice, he has conducted thousands of evaluations on children and adolescents.  He continues to be involved in clinical practice and in neurosurgical procedures where he maps brain functioning during brain surgery, assesses language lateralization via Wada (intracarotid sodium amytal) procedures, and acts as a consultant regarding brain injury and recovery.

Academically, Dr. Lebby is on the clinical faculty at Alliant International University where he is an associate professor.  He has additional appointments as an assistant professor of neurology and assistant clinical professor of pediatrics at UCSF School of Medicine.  Dr. Lebby has trained hundreds of students and continues to carry a teaching load in addition to his clinical duties.  As part of his academic duties, he has chaired over 50 dissertations and supervises pre- and post-doctoral interns at his hospital practice.  Dr. Lebby has multiple research publications and book chapters, and he continues to pursue an active research program.  He lectures across the country on topics related to pediatric brain injury and recovery and presents each year at local and national conferences.  He has a special interest in neuroimaging as it relates to pediatric brain injury and recovery and has developed new tests and techniques for assessing neurocognitive functioning in children and adolescents.  Dr. Lebby's most important qualification, however, is his ability to explain difficult concepts relating to brain function and injury in a manner that is easily understood by all.

Shana J. Asbell, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, has been a clinical speech-language pathologist for over ten years and has recently earned a doctor of philosophy degree in clinical psychology with an emphasis in pediatric neuropsychology.  Dr. Asbell's clinical experiences include working in a variety of organizations, including not-for-profit clinics, private practice, schools, and hospitals with children who present with a variety of neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral, and neurocognitive disorders.  She has provided assessment and therapeutic treatment for children ranging in age from preschool to young adulthood, as well as consultation to their families and other professionals regarding the speech-language and cognitive rehabilitation needs of neurologically-impaired children.  Dr. Asbell has given presentations at ASHA and FLASHA and has presented workshops for professionals and parents.  Currently, Dr. Asbell is a postdoctoral resident in neuropsychology at North Shore Children's Hospital in Salem, Massachusetts.  She will complete her residency in clinical neuropsychology at Mary Free Bed Hospital in Grand Rapids, Michigan.  This is Dr. Asbell's second publication with LinguiSystems. She is the co-author of The Source for PDD Assessment and Intervention with Margaret Mapes Visconti.


The brain is a highly complex organ, making the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an individual difficult to predict.  TBIs almost always affect some aspect of cognition.  Sometimes damage causes disruption to primary abilities, such as language, memory, or visual and/or motor functioning.  Other times, damage may result in more subtle impairments of cognition, such as arousal and attention, executive functioning, abstract reasoning, or thought processes.

Each child and adolescent who has sustained a brain injury presents with different deficits and follows a different course of recovery.  Children with similar injuries do not experience identical deficits, and children with similar deficits may have different injuries.  The overall similarities in impairment and recovery, however, tend to be greater than the individual differences.

It is crucial for a clinician working with this population to develop a general understanding of the effects a brain injury has on a child and his family.  It is important to be aware of both the commonalities and the differences expected after a brain injury. The Source for TBI Children & Adolescents presents the main aspects relating to brain injury in addition to the more subtle features that result from brain damage.  This book also covers:

  • brain anatomy and development
  • TBI-related problems
  • assessment procedures
  • recovery processes
  • recommendations for intervention
  • family issues

We come from different specialty areas relating to the fields of neuroscience, brain injury, and language/communicative functioning.  Both of us have years of experience assessing and treating children and adolescents with brain-related injuries.  We also bring to this work many years of experience involving the research, study, and college-level teaching of the neurosciences and topics relating to brain injuries and dysfunction.  While working together in a large children's hospital in central California, we had the opportunity to collaborate and produce The Source for TBI Children & Adolescents.  This book outlines the information and practice procedures that we have found to be useful and successful in the management of children and adolescents who have sustained TBIs.

We hope that you find The Source for TBI Children & Adolescents helpful whether you work in a hospital, rehabilitation clinic, private practice office, or academic setting.

Paul and Shana