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Just for Adults Deductions
Ages: 16-Adult   Grades: 11-Adult

Clients who have difficulty with logical thinking after neurological injury learn to make accurate deductions with these lessons.  The lessons are controlled for language difficulty and have a systematic progression.       


  • Use logical thinking and make reasonable inferences
  • Improve basic reasoning and decision-making
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The one-page activities give clients targeted practice in deductive reasoning from a variety of perspectives.  Simple, uncluttered pages and a carefully planned task sequence train clients to identify salient information and use convergent reasoning.  Clients respond to the tasks by marking the correct answer, giving verbal answers, and writing one-word answers.  A screening tool helps you identify the client's reasoning strategies prior to designing therapy sessions. 

The activities include:

  • making word deductions from sentences and clues (e.g., What has pages, a cover, and is read?)
  • answering if/then questions
  • answering what, who, and which questions
  • determining figural and object classes from visual and verbal clues

You may purchase Just for Adults Deductions individually or as part of the 6-book Just for Adults set.  The 6-book set consists of:

Just for Adults Abstract Categories

Just for Adults Concrete Categories

Just for Adults Deductions

Just for Adults Following Directions

Just for Adults Word Relationships

Just for Adults Yes/No Questions


Copyright © 2007

40-page book, screening tool, answer key
  • Communication, both verbal and nonverbal, is a fundamental human need.  Meeting this need by facilitating and enhancing communication in any form can be vital to a patient's well-being (NSA, 2005).
  • Rehabilitation is an important part of recovering from a stroke, and the goal is to regain as much independence as possible (NSA, 2005).
  • In an extensive review of the literature, Holland, Fromm, DeRuyter, and Stein (1996) found aphasia treatment to be efficacious and benefited the majority of individuals with aphasia in comparison to no treatment groups.
  • Therapy should include tasks that focus on semantic processing, including semantic cueing of spoken output, semantic judgments, categorization, and word-to-picture matching (Taylor-Goh, 2005).
  • Therapy may target the comprehension and production of complex, as well as simple, sentence forms (Taylor-Goh, 2005).

Just for Adults Deductions incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.


Holland, A.L., Fromm, D.S., DeRuyter, F., & Stein, M. (1996). Treatment efficacy: Aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, S27-S36.

National Stroke Association (NSA). (2005). Clinical guidelines for stroke rehabilitation and recovery. Retrieved August 13, 2009, from

Taylor-Goh, S. (2005). Royal college of speech & language therapists: Clinical guidelines. United Kingdom: Speechmark.


Kathryn J. Tomlin


Kathryn J. Tomlin, M.S., CCC-SLP, has been a speech-language clinician in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and in long-term care facilities for over 25 years.  She has authored many materials with LinguiSystems over the last 20 years.  Some of her works include:

  • WALC 1 (Workbook of Activities for Language and Cognition) Aphasia Rehab
  • WALC 2 Cognitive Rehab
  • WALC 8 Word Finding
  • WALC 9 Verbal and Visual Reasoning
  • WALC 10 Memory
  • WALC 11 Language for Home Activities
  • The Source for Apraxia Therapy

Zanmi, Kathy's Samoyed, goes to work with her to encourage the clients.  Her clients enjoy feeding and spending time with Zanmi, and Zanmi enjoys their company.  Everybody wins!


Deductive reasoning and making inferences are an integral part of our daily communication.  We use critical thinking in multiple ways every day.  We reason whenever information is presented to us.  The ability to use this kind of thinking is frequently impaired in someone who has language or thinking difficulties.  Communication, decision making, and problem solving can become very confusing or overwhelming if these skills are impaired. 

Many factors can hinder the ability to use deductive reasoning, such as:

  • difficulty understanding language or concepts due to aphasia
  • difficulty using convergent and divergent language skills
  • difficulty mentally holding and manipulating information so one can come to a logical conclusion
  • impulsivity causing action before receiving and analyzing all pertinent information
  • becoming overwhelmed with mentally-held information and new input

The exercises in Just for Adults Deductions were developed to address verbal/written deductive reasoning and inferencing followed by figural and object deduction.  These skills are the foundation for many language and thought processes and for activities of daily functioning.  The exercises in this book can be done in multiple ways.

  • Have the clients read items silently and complete them independently.
  • Have the clients read task items aloud and write the response.  In general, performance improves when a person has multi-modality input (i.e., hearing it while reading it).
  • Read the items to the client and have the client give responses verbally.

Mental manipulation and deduction are more complex thinking skills so be sure to give your client ample time to reason and think before responding.  It is important to remember that the clients who will use these exercises are very concrete thinkers and will tend to have divergent reasoning patterns that link information tangentially.  The items have been written to assist in re-establishing convergent thinking, but at times your client may need cues to aid with convergence.

The exercises in this book teach processes needed for successful deductive reasoning, decision making, and determining actions.  All tasks are worded in a manner and set up on the pages in specific ways to assist clients in developing the processes needed for these critical thinking skills.  When doing the tasks, it is more important to monitor the client's manner of processing rather than if the specific target answer is correctly determined.  If the client is considering all of the salient information, using convergent reasoning, and is exhibiting all of the necessary thinking components when doing an exercise, then the task is successful, whether or not the exact target answer is determined.  When a certain process seems to be missing from a client's line of reasoning, that is what should be cued in order to assist the client in re-establishing these basic foundational skills.

The screening tool is not to be used as a test but rather as a way to observe a client's use of strategies and reasoning patterns.  Some questions to think about while observing how the client completes the screening include:

  1. Does the client need to use verbal rehearsal to aid comprehension?
  2. Is the client impulsive, and does his impulsivity lead to errors?
  3. Does the client read too much into the task and become confused?
  4. Is the client aware of his error responses?
  5. Does the client ask for clarification when having difficulty or does he just keep going, whether the item is understood or not?
  6. Does the client miss salient information?
  7. Is the client able to think convergently and divergently?
  8. Does the client have trouble shifting from one task to the next?

Use the information gleaned during your observations to help the client re-establish effective strategies while doing the exercises in this book.

These guidelines will help you present the activities in this book.

  • The goals of the exercises are to improve a client's ability to reason, make inferences, and then come to a conclusion.  There are multiple answers for many of the exercise items.  Be flexible with presentation and accept answers that differ from your viewpoint if the client can give a logical explanation.  The answers in the Answer Key are provided as a reference and are not intended to be all inclusive.
  • The exercises are not for testing purposes.  Try to make them as enjoyable as possible.  Talking about the specific task items, particularly when correcting error responses, will help to improve the client's ability for achieving the goals.  Do not get into debates if the client is unable to see another viewpoint for a response.  Just move on to the next item.

I hope you and your clients find these exercises enjoyable and beneficial.