Teach adolescents to glean information from a variety of sources to make accurate inferences about social situations and respond appropriately.
- Detect and interpret others' perspectives correctly
- Make accurate inferences
- Increase success in social communication and social interactions
- Boost self-esteem by learning how to control social interactions
The activity pages are filled with graphic organizers and interesting photos. The lessons give students specific, clear directions and teach them to:
- use dialog and questioning to make inferences about occupation, location, and action
- make inferences about social situations from body language and photographs
- explore social expectations and social status
- organize and use basic information to make accurate inferences
- make appropriate social comments
- understand and interpret indirect requests
- judge intentions and understand
These learning strategies are used to give students practice in interpersonal negotiation:
- explicit instruction
- other guided practice
The lessons can be presented to individual students or small groups of students. You may purchase Making Social Inferences individually or as a 6-book set. The 6-book set consists of:
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Conversations
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Emotions
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Getting Along
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Interpersonal Negotiation
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Making Social Inferences
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Nonverbal Language
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- Explicitly teaching and reinforcing inference-making leads to better outcomes in overall text comprehension, text engagement and metacognitive thinking. Students should cite the evidence they used to draw conclusions in order to make the implicit process of making inferences more explicit (McMackin & Lawrence, 2001; Project for School Intervention, 2004).
- Teaching students to make inferences teaches them how to seek meaning in what they read and how to make meaning in their lives (Calkins, 2001).
- Targeted language intervention with at-risk students may result in more cautionary, socially acceptable behaviors (Moore-Brown et al., 2002).
- Intervention for adolescents with language impairments may include objectives aimed at improving deficient social communication skills (Henry et al., 1995; Bliss, 1992).
- In selecting remediation targets within social communication among adolescents, clinicians should consider the relative importance of various communication skills in terms of enhancing peer communication. Communication skills involving social perspective taking (including nonverbal language) that focus on another person are more valued by adolescents than skills that focus on the speaker's thoughts or linguistics (Henry et al., 1995).
- Children with limited language skills experience a poor quality of social interactions (Hadley & Rice, 1991; Fujiki et al., 1997; Craig, 1993; Cohen et al., 1998). Such children have greater deficits in social cognitive processing than children with typically developing language. They have particular deficits in identifying the feelings of each participant in a conflict, identifying and evaluating strategies to overcome obstacles, and knowing when a conflict is resolved (Cohen et al., 1998).
Spotlight on Social Skills Adolescent Making Social Inferences incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Bliss, L.S. (1992). A comparison of tactful messages by children with and without language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 23, 343-347.
Calkins, L.M. (2001). The art of teaching reading. Boston: Addison Wesley Longman.
Cohen, N.J., Menna, R., Vallance, D.D., Barwick, M.A., Im, N., & Horodezky, N.B. (1998). Language, social cognitive processing, and behavioral characteristics of psychiatrically disturbed children with previously identified and unsuspected language impairments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 853-864.
Craig, H. (1993). Social skills of children with specific language impairment: Peer relationships. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 24, 206-215.
Fujiki, M., Brinton, B., Robinson, L.A., & Watson, V. (1997). The ability of children with specific language impairment to participate in a group decision task. Journal of Childhood Communication Development, 18, 1-10.
Hadley, P.A., & Rice, M.L. (1991). Conversational responsiveness in speech and language-impaired preschoolers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 1308-1317.
Henry, F.M., Reed, V.A., & McAllister, L.L. (1995). Adolescents' perceptions of the relative importance of selected communication skills in their positive peer relationships. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 26, 263-272.
McMackin, M.C., & Lawrence, S. (2001) Constructing meaning from expository texts. Reading Horizons, 42, 117-137.
Moore-Brown, B., Sanger, D., Montgomery, J., & Nishida, B. (2002). Communication and violence: New roles for speech-language pathologists. The ASHA Leader (April-June).
Project for School Innovation. (2004). Making inferences from text. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from Project for School Innnovation Web site: http://www.psinnovation.org/files/documents/LSGIntro.doc