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No-Glamour® Question Structure Wh-Questions
Ages: 7-Adult   Grades: 2-Adult

This straightforward, picture-based program teaches students question-asking strategies that will improve their ability to ask wh- questions.

Outcomes

  • Convert statements into wh- questions
  • Formulate who, where, when, what, why, and how questions
  • Participate in question-and-answer exchanges in the classroom
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There are six units:

  • Who
  • Where
  • When
  • What
  • Why
  • How

Each unit follows this teaching hierarchy:

Target Questions and Modeling Script
Twenty target questions are listed in a hierarchy of difficulty.  A modeling script provides an example of metacognitive strategy teaching you can use with every question in that unit. The script changes as the wh- question type changes.

Picture Worksheets
Two picture sequences are presented for each target question.  The first picture sequence presents a statement.  The second picture sequence elicits a question about the previous statement.  Each picture sequence begins with a large question mark that contains the wh- question word to help students visualize the word order of the question.  Nouns and pronouns are used throughout the program.

Unit Review Sheets
A four-page review is provided at the end of each unit.  Students generate questions using the target question form while looking at pictures.

A Wrap-up section at the end of the book presents ten new stimulus pictures.  Beneath each picture, four initial wh- question words are presented.  Students formulate novel whquestions while looking at the pictures.  Use this unit to assess oral and/or written question-asking skills and as a natural transition to question formulation using picture scenes from other sources.

 

Copyright © 2008

Components
166 pages, picture symbol key
  • Grammar, discourse structure, and metalinguistics are all connected to reading/ writing achievement and are required for text comprehension (ASHA, 2001).
  • Graphic and semantic organizers, question generation, and summarization are three strategies that have a firm scientific basis for improving comprehension (National Reading Panel Report, 2000).
  • Children with expressive language disorders frequently have problems developing literacy skills and require specific instruction to acquire reading and writing skills (Taylor-Goh, 2005).
  • Students should understand specific grammar structures before they are asked to use them in speech (Taylor-Goh, 2005).
  • Both comprehension and production should be considered in all areas of grammar. Particular attention should be paid to syntactic movement (Taylor-Goh, 2005).

No-Glamour Question Structure Wh- Questions incorporate the above principles and are also based on expert professional practice.

References

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). 2001. Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents. Available from www.asha.org/docs/html/GL2001-00062.html

National Reading Panel Report. 2000. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. www.readingrockets.org/research/federal

Taylor-Goh, S. (2005). Royal college of speech & language therapists: Clinical guidelines. United Kingdom: Speechmark.

Author(s)

Andrea M. Lazzari

Biography

Andrea M. Lazzari, Ed.D., is a speech-language pathologist for Henrico County Public Schools in Richmond, Virginia.  She has also worked in a community clinic and in private practice.  She has taught preschool students with disabilities and was supervisor of Early Childhood Special Education Programs for the state of Virginia.  She has also served as a teacher trainer at the college and university levels.  No-Glamour Question Structure Wh- Questions is Andrea's twenty-fifth publication with LinguiSystems.  She is the author or co-author of numerous other publications, including No-Glamour Question Structure Interrogative Reversals, Vocabulary To Go, 125 Ways to Be a Better Test Taker Elementary, 125 Ways to Be a Better Test Taker Intermediate, and the HELP series.

 

Introduction

The language used by teachers and students in their classrooms has a significant impact on what is learned.  Active participation in classroom activities (including question-and-answer exchanges) increases students' access to learning and improves their long-term educational outcomes.  Students who lack communicative competence in the classroom may experience educational failure because they do not have equal access to the curriculum (Wilkinson & Silliman, 2000).

No-Glamour Question Structure Wh- Questions is written to help students gain fuller access to the curriculum.  It is a straightforward, picture-based program to help students formulate questions, enabling them to participate more actively in question-and-answer exchanges in their classrooms.  The target audience for this book is students ages seven and older with oral and written language deficits, including young students with language delays, older students whose written language is significantly weaker than their oral language, students whose second language is English, and students with autism.  These students often have particular difficulty formulating relevant questions using correct word order.  It is recommended that students have the prerequisite skill of producing a variety of statements incorporating present progressive verbs and auxiliaries with singular and plural nouns and pronouns before beginning the tasks in this volume.

Each unit begins with a list of 20 target questions and a modeling script to teach the format to the student. Within each unit, questions are grouped in a hierarchy of difficulty.  Two picture sequences are presented on each of the following 20 pages in the unit.  The first picture sequence presents a statement.  The second picture sequence elicits a question about the previous statement (e.g., "The girl is happy" elicits the question "Who is happy?").  Each of the question picture sequences begins with a large question symbol containing the initial question word (Who, Where, When, etc.).  Some students may need verbal cues for the question words.

If the primary goal of intervention is oral language, the student can dictate responses to be written in each blank.  When the student becomes proficient in formulating the questions aloud, you can elicit a written response from him.

Verb tenses for stimulus items can be easily changed to reflect an individual student's goals.  Adjectives can be incorporated to make the tasks more difficult.  Copies of the stimulus pictures can be colored to elicit adjectives within the questions.  Students may also add adjectives and adverbs not pictured in the illustrations.

Both nouns and pronouns are used in the stimulus items.  These may also be changed as needed.  A picture symbol key of the pronoun symbols is presented.  It will be helpful to familiarize students with these symbols before beginning the units.

A review is provided at the end of each unit.  Each review presents one stimulus picture for each of the 20 practice items in the unit.  The student is asked to formulate questions beginning with specific question words.  The student is not expected to repeat the questions verbatim as stated or written on the previous practice sheets.  Any relevant, grammatically correct question beginning with the target word is acceptable.

The Wrap-Up section at the end of the book presents ten new stimulus pictures.  Beneath each picture, four initial question words are presented.  The goal is for the student to formulate novel questions beginning with each of the target words.  There are no expected correct responses to these items.  Rather, it is an opportunity for students to creatively formulate a variety of questions.  This section also provides a natural carryover to question formulation using pictures from other sources.

The ultimate goal of No-Glamour Question Structure Wh- Questions is for students to develop competence in question formulation, enabling them to use these forms naturally in their classrooms and when interacting with peers at school.  Students who need additional practice in question formulation may benefit from the companion volume for formulating questions, No-Glamour Question Structure Interrogative Reversals.

I hope you will find this volume easy-to-use and effective in helping your students develop skills in question formulation.

Andrea

Wilkinson, L.C., & Silliman, E.R. (2000). Classroom language and literacy learning. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr, (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol. III. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.