Children with a repaired cleft palate relate well to adorable Chippy the Chipmunk as his big sister Twitch helps him improve his articulation skills and eliminate compensatory errors.
- Produce oral airflow as a precursor to early developing sounds
- Improve articulation of h, f/v, p/b, t/d, and k/g by eliminating compensatory errors, such as glottal stops, pharyngeal fricatives, velar fricatives, pharyngeal stops, posterior nasal fricatives, and mid-dorsum palatal stops
Six storybooks with captivating illustrations help children visualize the skills they are learning. Clinician's notes are provided in each story to more fully explain therapy techniques, troubleshoot potential problems, and give tips for successful sound production. Activities to further develop the target skills are listed on the last page of each book.
Each book addresses a specific aspect of cleft palate speech. The books provide an evidence-based skill progression when they are used in numerical order. The books may be purchased as a 6-book set or individually. The 6-book set consists of:
Book 1 - Chippy Has a Birthday targets production of oral airflow for speech
Book 2 - Chippy Plays School targets /h/
Book 3 - Chippy Plays with Cars targets /f/ and /v/
Book 4 - Chippy Pops Bubbles targets /p/ and /b/
Book 5 - Chippy Makes New Friends targets /t/ and /d/
Book 6 - Chippy Visits a Farm targets /k/ and /g/
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- Identifying articulation and resonance problems in children with cleft palate speech is the first step to creating effective treatment plans (Golding-Kushner, 2001; Dixon-Wood, 2006).
- Children with compensatory errors due to cleft palate speech should participate in speech therapy on an individual basis at least three times per week (Golding-Kushner, 2001).
- Velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) during speech, but not during blowing activities, is most likely a learned behavior (Shprintzen, McCall, & Skolnick, 1975).
- Hypernasality and nasal air emission can result from poor articulation skills due to velopharyngeal mislearning (Kummer, 2006).
- Blowing exercises do not increase strength or effectiveness of soft palate musculature during speech (Shprintzen, McCall, & Skolnick, 1975).
- Demonstration of oral airflow can be used as a strategy to teach sound production (Hardin-Jones, Chapman, & Scherer, 2006).
- Direct articulation therapy techniques are recommended for improving cleft palate speech (Golding-Kushner, 2001).
- Production of the /h/ sound should always be targeted first in order to keep vocal folds open and help prevent glottal stops (Golding-Kushner, 2006).
- The /f/ and /v/ sounds should be the first fricatives targeted because they are anterior, visible, and the earliest-developing fricatives (Golding-Kushner, 2001).
- The /p/ sound should be over aspirated when first taught (Golding-Kushner, 2001).
- The tongue tip sounds should be introduced after the bilabial sounds (Golding-Kushner, 2001).
- The /k/ and /g/ sounds are the final plosives taught because they are the most challenging. These sounds require posterior articulator placement that is close to the vocal tract where glottal errors are produced (Golding-Kushner, 2001).
- Pairing voiceless consonants with whispered vowels is a common strategy to keep vocal folds open and eliminate glottal stops (Hardin-Jones, Chapman, & Scherer, 2006).
- Multisensory techniques are important to use with children with cleft palate speech due to structural differences and possible history of hearing loss (Dixon-Wood, 2006).
The Early Articulation Books for Cleft Palate Speech series incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Bzoch, K. (2004). A battery of clinical perceptual tests, techniques, and observations for the reliable clinical assessment, evaluation, and management of 11 categorical aspects of cleft palate speech disorders. In K. Bzoch (Ed.), Communicative disorders related to cleft lip and palate (5th ed., pp. 383). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, Inc.
Dixon-Wood, V.L. (2006). Assessment and intervention of speech disorders related to cleft lip and palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency. Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 7, 3-8.
Golding-Kushner, K.J. (2001). Therapy techniques for cleft palate speech and related disorders. San Diego, CA: Singular.
Hardin-Jones, M., Chapman, K., & Scherer, N.J. (2006, June 13). Early intervention in children with cleft palate. The ASHA Leader, 11(8), 8-9, 32.
Kummer, A.W. (2006, February 7). Resonance disorders and nasal emission: Evaluation and treatment using "low tech" and "no tech" procedures. The ASHA Leader, 11(2), 4, 26.
Shprintzen, R.J., McCall, G., & Skolnick, M.L. (1975). A new therapeutic technique for the treatment of velopharyngeal incompetence. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 40, 69-83.
Templin, M., & Darley, L.F. (1969). Templin-Darley tests of articulation (2nd ed.). Iowa City, IA: Bureau of Educational Research and Service, University of Iowa.