Apply the principles of motor planning to the treatment of childhood apraxia of speech with this program, complete with detailed instructions; 2000 stimulus pictures; and tactile-kinesthetic cue cards.
- Establish a wide variety of phonetic movements/motor plans
- Produce phonemes from different classes of sounds in increasingly longer utterances
- Improve intelligibility of speech
The 65-page manual shows you how to establish motor learning for different syllable shapes and pattern sequences. Incorporate research-based principles into therapy organization and goal selection and:
- select target sounds and words to build intelligibility and promote easier acquisition
- set up a practice schedule to maximize motor learning
- use blocked practice to establish new motor sequences
- use random practice to facilitate generalization of learned motor sequences
- adjust the type and frequency of cues/modeling
- adjust the type and frequency of performance feedback
- incorporate prosody training early in the treatment program
- use tactile/kinesthetic cue cards to support the establishment of movement sequences for speech
The stimulus cards are customized to apraxia therapy with:
- 325 picture cards (three pictures per side for 1950 pictures)
- 30 picture cards for multisyllabic words (one picture per side for 60 total pictures)
- 12 tactile-kinesthetic cue cards
The tactile-kinesthetic cue cards develop sound blending and syllable transitions. Students produce a variety of phoneme sequences while moving one finger along a visual representation of the movement sequence. These cards are coated, so you can write target sound sequences on them with a dry-erase marker. The cue cards represent the following hierarchy of syllable structure:
- CV words
- VC words
- CVC words
- Initial strident/continuant
- Final strident/continuant
- Medial consonants
- Backward chaining: /s/ blends
- Backward chaining: /l/, /r/ blends
- Three-syllable words
- Four-syllable words
- Repetitions: caterpillar
- Repetitions: dinosaur
Students progress and:
- establish a wide variety of phonetic movements/motor plans
- stabilize sounds that are produced inconsistently
- establish a core, meaningful vocabulary
- speak with smoother syllable transitions
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- Certified speech-language pathologists with specialized knowledge in motor learning theory may diagnose and treat childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) (ASHA, 2007a).
- Treatment of CAS should include both observation and execution to facilitate the formation of motor memories (Rizzolatti, Fabbri-Destro, & Cattaneo, 2009).
- Mass practice supports initial learning of a motor skill while distributed practice supports generalization of learned behaviors (Hall, Jordan, & Robin, 2007; Strand & Skinder, 1999).
- Treatment should target a variety of syllable shapes and phonetic contexts. Speech production is highly dependent upon phonetic context and generalization of speech learning between contexts is minimal (Tremblay, Houle, & Ostry, 2008).
- The emphasis of treatment for clients with CAS should be on movement patterns and sequencing of sounds (Caruso & Strand, 1999).
- Repetitive practice is an integral component of treatment for clients with CAS. One of the fundamental principles of motor learning is the need for a large number of repetitions of the same behavior in the same context (Hall, Jordan, & Robin, 2007).
Treatment Program for Childhood Apraxia of Speech incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2007a). Childhood apraxia of speech [Position Statement]. Available from www.asha.org/policy
Caruso, A., & Strand, E. (1999). Clinical management of motor speech disorders in children. New York, NY: Thieme.
Hall, P., Jordan, L., & Robin, D. (2007). Developmental apraxia of speech: Theory and clinical practice (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Rizzolatti, G., Fabbri-Destro, M., & Cattaneo, L. (2009). Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance. Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, 5(1), 24-34.
Strand, E., & Skinder, A. (1999). Treatment of developmental apraxia of speech: Integral stimulation methods. In A. Caruso & E. Strand (Eds.), Clinical management of motor speech disorders in children (pp. 109-148). New York, NY: Thieme.
Tremblay, S., Houle, G., & Ostry, D. (2008). Specificity of speech motor learning. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(10), 2426-2434.