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No-Glamour® Vowels
Ages: 4-12   Grades: PreK-7

No more searching for materials to develop vowel sounds!  This convenient resource has materials and treatment techniques for all the vowels and diphthongs at all levels of ability.

Outcomes

  • Build intelligible speech
  • Articulate vowels and diphthongs accurately in words, sentences, and conversation
Book on CD
#31672
$43.95
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CD*
#32672
$43.95
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*The CD contains the complete book.  All pages are printable.
** This is a Cloud E-Book that is accessible from any device with Internet access. .

Use No-Glamour Vowels for childhood apraxia of speech, severe articulation disorders, and English Language Learners.  The expansive content includes:    

  • hundreds of pages of picture-based activities progressing through establishment, words, phrases, sentences, and generalization
  • hierarchy of simple to complex word shapes and contexts   
  • stimuli loaded with the target vowel sound is ideal for practice and auditory bombardment
  • vowel screening tool
  • elicitation and establishment techniques
  • manner of production and ages of mastery for each vowel and diphthong
  • vowel placement chart
  • adaptations for home practice 

The activities are organized into these units:

  • Long a
  • Short a
  • Long e
  • Short e
  • Long i
  • Short i
  • Long o
  • Short o
  • Hooked "u" (e.g., book)
  • Diphthong "ow"
  • Diphthong "oi"

Each unit uses a systematic progression of stimuli:

  • Single Word picture pages—twelve pictures/target words per page; organized by word shapes of increasing complexity  
  • Word/Phrase/Sentences picture pages—four pictures/target words per page; each target word is trained in utterances of increasing length (e.g., ate, the dog ate, the dog ate everything on his plate); phrases and sentences are loaded with the target vowel sound; target words systematically increase in length and complexity
  • Word list—a practice list that includes the pictured words (on the Single Word and Word/Phrase/Sentences activity sheets) and additional words in VC, VCC, CV, CCV, CCCV, CVC, CCVC, CVCC, CCVCC, and CCCVC combinations
  • Generalization picture pages—illustrations with a short story or poem loaded with the target vowel sounds
  • Personalized Practice—each word is presented with a picture and blank lines so you can customize the practice to your client

The generalization and personal practice pages are on a FREE CD that comes with the book.  The CD contains an additional 176 printable pages of therapy materials in PDF format. 

 

Copyright © 2012

Components
188-page book plus a CD of an additional 176 printable pages, screening tool
  • Direct therapy for vowel errors has a positive effect, with improvements in vowel production occurring over and above that expected from spontaneous development (Ball & Gibbon, 2002).
  • Successful intervention for children with speech sound production errors, especially those with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), includes a home program and interaction with the child's family and teachers (ASHA, 2007).
  • Work on vowels helps improve intelligibility (Metz, Samar, Schiavetti, & Sitler, 1990) and restore a more normal developmental pattern of speech production (Stoel-Gammon, 1990).
  • Treatment for CAS should target a variety of syllable shapes and phonetic contexts (Tremblay, Housel, & Ostry, 2008).
  • Treatment goals for children with CAS should include longer speech routines to improve generalization (Gildersleeve-Neumann, 2007).

No-Glamour Vowels incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.

References

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical Report]. Available from www.asha.org/policy

Ball, M.J., & Gibbon, F.E. (2002). Vowel disorders. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. (2007, November). Treatment for childhood apraxia of speech: A description of integral stimulation and motor learning. The ASHA Leader. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader/2007/071106/f071106a/

Metz, D.E., Samar, V.J., Schiavetti, N., & Sitler, R.W. (1990). Acoustic dimensions of hearing-impaired speakers' intelligibility: Segmental and suprasegmental characteristics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 476-487.

Stoel-Gammon, C. (1990). Issues in phonological development and disorders. In J.F. Miller (Ed.), Research on child language disorders: A decade of progress (pp. 255-265). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Tremblay, S., Houle, G., & Ostry, D.J. (2008). Specificity of speech motor learning. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(10), 2426-2434. doi: 10.1523/ JNEUROSCI.4196-07.2008

Author(s)

Denise Parks, Tera LaBrosciano, Kristen Kolde

Biography

Denise K. Parks, M.A., CCC-SLP, received her undergraduate degree in Communicative Disorders from San Diego State University, and her master's degree from California State University, Fullerton.  She has worked as a speech pathologist serving children for the past 16 years and currently works in the public school system in southern California.  Denise has a special interest in treating children with apraxia of speech and improving children's self-esteem through their increased ability to express themselves intelligibly and communicate well with others.  When she isn't working, Denise enjoys spending time with her family.  No Glamour Vowels is Denise's first publication with LinguiSystems.

Tera LaBrosciano, M.A., CCC-SLP, received her undergraduate and master's degree from California State University, Fullerton.  She has worked as a public school Speech-Language Pathologist since 1997, serving preschool, elementary, and middle school aged children.  She has also worked with adults in the hospital setting.  Tera is extremely thankful to be a part of the rewarding field of Speech Pathology.  When she is not working, Tera enjoys photography, scrapbooking, and creating memories with her family and friends.  No Glamour Vowels is Tera's first publication with LinguiSystems.

Kristen S. Kolde, M.S., CCC-SLP, received her undergraduate degree from California State University, Fullerton and her master of science degree from Loma Linda University.  She has worked as a speech-language pathologist in the public school system since 2001 serving children from preschool to high school age with speech-language delays and disorders.  Kristen's current interest is working with preschool-aged children with limited language abilities.  When she isn't working, Kristen enjoys spending time with her family—hiking, camping, riding bikes, and taking walks.  No Glamour Vowels is Kristen's first publication with LinguiSystems.

Introduction

Over recent years, we found that more of our clients were having difficulty with vowels, but we could not find a comprehensive, therapeutic resource to use with them.  This motivated us to create No-Glamour Vowels to give other professionals an opportunity to work more efficiently with their clients.

Research related to treating vowel disorders is very limited.  Most of the research has focused on errors in consonant production.  In their book, Vowel Disorders (2002), Ball and Gibbon reviewed the research related to vowel therapy and noted, "The tentative conclusion that emerges from the limited evidence is that direct therapy for vowel errors has a positive effect, with improvements in vowel production occurring over and above that expected from spontaneous development."  Metz, Samar, Schiavetti, and Sitler (1990) suggested that work on vowels helps to improve intelligibility, and Stoel-Gammon (1990) proposed that it restores a more normal developmental pattern of speech production.  In our own experience with children who are experiencing vowel production errors, direct work on vowels has resulted in improvements in intelligibility and overall communication success.

It is important to select appropriate therapy goals based on a detailed assessment of a child's speech (Stackhouse & Wells, 1997).  Therefore, we have provided the Vowel Production Screener, which is a screening tool to help you determine a child's areas of strengths and weaknesses.  This screener will also aid you in selecting appropriate targets and in measuring the child's progress.

No-Glamour Vowels targets long a, e, i, o, and u; short a, e, i, o, and u; hooked u; and diphthongs oi and ow.  The following pages are provided for each vowel sound.

  • Vowel Information Page: This page provides information about how the vowel is produced, its phonemic designation, common spellings, expected age of mastery, and some techniques for eliciting the vowel sound.
  • Word List: Research indicates that treatment for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) should target a variety of syllable shapes and phonetic contexts (Tremblay, Houle, & Ostry, 2008).  Traditional articulation therapy methods also support a variety of word shapes (Van Riper, 1947; Van Riper & Emerick, 1984).  To support this research, we have presented each vowel sound in a variety of word shapes (e.g., CV, VC, CCV, CCCV, CVC, CCVC, CVCC) allowing for practice at different age levels and abilities.  Each word list is on a single page, so you can easily copy it and use it with children who do not require picture prompts.
  • Activity Ideas: This page contains several activities specific to the vowel sound you are targeting.
  • Picture Pages: The use of pictures has been noted to be very effective for children with CAS (ASHA, 2007).  We have chosen picturable words from each word list and presented each word in the following hierarchical formats.  You may photocopy any of these pages and send them home with the child for additional practice.  Each page contains space at the bottom for you to write instructions for home practice.
    • Single Word Level: Each page pictures 6-12 labeled target words of a specific word shape.  Sometimes, when there weren't enough picturable words for one word shape, we grouped several word shapes together under the umbrella of "Other."  For example, the "Other" single-word page for long i includes both CVCC and CCVCC words. Word/Phrase/Sentence Level: Instruction for CAS should include focus on multisyllabic utterances in order to change speech behaviors (Hodge, 2008).  To support this research as well as traditional articulation therapy methods (Van Riper, 1947; Van Riper & Emerick, 1984), we have presented each target word in phrases and sentences loaded with the target vowel sound, giving the child maximum practice opportunities during each elicitation.
    • Generalization: In this section, we have presented a short, rhyming story loaded with the vowel sound for each target word.  The goals are twofold.  First, treatment goals for children with CAS should include longer speech routines to improve generalization (Gildersleeve-Neumann, 2007).  Secondly, children with communication delays, especially those suspected to have CAS, may be at risk for literacy difficulties, including rhyme (Agin, Nicholl, & Geng, 2004; ASHA, 2007; Marion, Sussman, & Marquardt, 1993).  The use of rhyme helps to provide a literacy component to your therapy program. (Note: The generalization pages are on the enclosed CD-ROM.)
    • Personalized Practice: Research has shown that successful intervention for children with speech sound production errors, especially those with CAS, includes a home program and interaction with the child's family and teachers (ASHA, 2007).  We have provided personalized practice pages that present each pictured word followed by blank writing lines. You can customize these pages for each child. (Note: The personalized practice pages are on the enclosed CD-ROM.)

General Techniques for Vowel Therapy
Research to support therapy techniques for vowels is limited.  Some researchers have suggested that techniques for consonant production can be adapted for vowel therapy (Ball & Gibbon, 2002).  Ball and Gibbon described the following research-based strategies in their book Vowel Disorders (2002).  We have also provided other techniques based on our personal experience and on suggestions from other professionals found online.  These suggestions are general techniques for working with children on vowel sounds.  Specific strategies are listed on the Vowel Information Page for each vowel sound.

 

Research-based Strategies:

  • Auditory-Input Therapy (Flynn & Lancaster, 1996)
  • Read the generalization stories to the child.  Do not ask the child to produce the sounds; he should just listen as you read to him.  This would make a good homework exercise.
  • Auditory Bombardment (Hodson & Payden, 1983, 1991)
  • At the beginning and end of each session, have the child listen as you read a list of 12-15 words using minimal amplification.  Then send the list home with the child, with instructions for the parent to read the list to the child.  The single-word picture pages in No-Glamour Vowels would be good to use for this activity.
  • Minimal Pair Contrast Therapy (Blache, Parsons, & Humphreys, 1981)
  • Present words to the child using opposing contrasts that vary in one feature (e.g., bed vs. bad ).  Ball and Gibbon (2002) suggest that vowel contrasts could be high vs. low vowels, front vs. back vowels, or long vs. short vowels.  You can use these contrasts to address perception and production of the sound.  For production, it is important that the child be able to produce both sounds at least some of the time.  The child should then use the words to communicate a message to you.
  • Maximal Opposition Approach (Elbert & Gierut, 1986; Gierut, 1989)
  • Use this approach for children who have difficulty with minimal pairs.  Some suggested vowel contrasts are long e vs. short o or short a vs. long u.
  • Metaphon (Dean & Howell, 1986)
  • This approach is done in two phases.  In the first phase, help the child develop specific vocabulary and visual referents for vowel sounds (e.g., lip round vs. spread, long vowel vs. short vowel sounds, or a symbol to represent movement for diphthongs).  In phase two, have the child work on identifying those distinctions in minimal pairs and use his knowledge to repair errors when communication breaks down.
  • Facilitative Contexts (Ball & Gibbon, 2002)
    • Attempt to pair the target vowels with consonants that are produced in the same part of the mouth.  For example, pair front vowels (e.g., short i, long e, long a, long i) with front consonants (e.g., /t/, /d/, /n/) and pair mid-back to back vowels (e.g., long u, hooked u) with back consonants (e.g., k, g, ng).
    • Use bilabials with vowels to reduce the competition in tongue movement between the vowel and consonant.
    • Use consonant sounds already in the child's inventory.
  • Auditory Discrimination (Ball & Gibbon, 2002)
    • Same/Different: Make sure your child can "hear" the targeted vowel sound correctly.  You can do this by repeating sounds (e.g., "oo-oo" and "ee-oo") and asking the child whether the sounds are the same or different.  Make sure the child understands the concepts of "same" and "different" before attempting this technique.
    • Right/Wrong: Make sure your child can "hear" the target vowel sound correctly.  You can do this by showing the child a picture and saying the target word correctly and incorrectly.  Have the child indicate if your production is correct or incorrect (or right or wrong).

Other Techniques

  • Order of Vowel SelectionWhen targeting vowels, it may be easier to choose early developing sounds first (e.g., long e, long u, short o, long o, and short u).  Target/elicit these sounds in early words, such as see, me, do, you, ma, go, no, and up.  Another consideration for vowel selection would be to consider lax vowels first, followed by stressed vowels, and then diphthongs.  This represents the movement from less-to-more complex motor movements.
  • Vowel Placement ChartUse the Vowel Placement Chart to encourage the child to change positions of the jaw, lips, and tongue.
  • Hand CuesProvide a hand cue to represent each vowel sound.  The cue should represent the movement of the mouth.  Several strategies are available online.
  • Familiar WordsHave the child attempt to say several familiar words that contain the target vowel.  These words could include favorite toys, names of loved ones, or names of pets.  If you hear the child make a correct production, use it to shape the vowel into other words.
  • Sound IdentificationIdentify the target sound for the child.  Then mix in the target sound as you say several other vowel sounds.  Have the child identify when you say the target sound by raising his hand, putting a block in a bucket, etc.  Make it fun!
  • Whispering—It may be easier for the child to produce a target vowel sound in a whisper first.  Add voicing after the child correctly produces the target sound in a whisper.
  • Sound ApproximationStart with a sound the child can produce correctly.  Then help him shape that sound into the target sound.  Shaping can be done using cues to move the jaw, lips, or tongue or by elongating or shortening the sounds.
  • AnalogiesGive the child a visual, auditory, or tactile cue to represent the sound.  A visual cue might be shaping your hands to look like the inside of your mouth.  An auditory cue might be comparing a vowel sound to a familiar environmental sound.  A tactile cue could be stroking down the child's arm to represent stretching out a vowel sound.
  • Vocal PlayEncourage your child to play with sounds.  You might encourage "fire engine sounds" to get the child to produce long e.

No-Glamour Vowels is intended to address a variety of professional needs.  It includes this 188-page book plus a CD-ROM that contains an additional 176 printable pages of therapy materials.  We hope all of this information makes your job as easy and efficient as it can be!

Denise, Tera, and Kristen

References

Agin, M.C., Geng, L.F., & Nicholl, M.J. (2004). The late talker: What to do if your child isn't talking yet. New York, NY: St. Martin's Griffin Press.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical Report]. Available from www.asha.org/policy

Ball, M.J., & Gibbon, F.E. (2002). Vowel disorders. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Blache, S.E., Parsons, C.L., & Humphreys, J.M. (1981). A minimal-word-pair model for teaching the linguistic significance of distinctive feature properties. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 46(3), 291-296.

Dean, E., & Howell, J. (1986). Developing linguistic awareness: A theoretically based approach to phonological disorders. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 21(2), 223-238.

Edwards, H.T. (1992). Applied phonetics: The sounds of American English. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing.

Elbert, M., & Gierut, J.A. (1986). Handbook of clinical phonology: Approaches to assessment and treatment. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.

Flynn, L., & Lancaster, G. (1996). Children's phonology sourcebook. Bicester, UK: Winslow Press.

Gierut, J.A. (1989). Maximal opposition approach to phonological treatment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 9-19.

Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. (2007, November). Treatment for childhood apraxia of speech: A description of integral stimulation and motor learning. The ASHA Leader. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader/2007/071106/f071106a/

Hodge, M.M. (2008, November). Motor speech disorders in pediatric practice. Presentation at the meeting of the American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Chicago, IL.

Hodson, B.W., & Paden, E.P. (1983). Targeting intelligible speech: A phonological approach to remediation. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.

Hodson, B.W., & Paden, E.P. (1991). Targeting intelligible speech: A phonological approach to remediation (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: ProEd, Inc.

Kaufman, N.R. (2005). The Kaufman speech praxis workout book: Treatment materials & a home program for childhood apraxia of speech. Gaylord, MI: Northern Speech Services, Inc.

Marion, M.J., Sussman, H.M., & Marquardt, T.P. (1993). The perception and production of rhyme in normal and developmentally apraxic children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 26(3), 129-160.

Metz, D.E., Samar, V.J., Schiavetti, N., & Sitler, R.W. (1990). Acoustic dimensions of hearing-impaired speakers' intelligibility: Segmental and suprasegmental characteristics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 476-487.

Secord, W.A. (2007). Eliciting sounds: Techniques and strategies for clinicians (2nd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Stackhouse, J., & Wells, B. (1997). Children's speech and literacy difficulties: A psycholinguistic framework. London, UK: Wiley Publishers.

Stoel-Gammon, C. (1990). Issues in phonological development and disorders. In J.F. Miller (Ed.), Research on child language disorders: A decade of progress (pp. 255-265). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Tremblay, S., Houle, G., & Ostry, D.J. (2008). Specificity of speech motor learning. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(10), 2426-2434. doi: 10.1523/ JNEUROSCI.4196-07.2008

Van Riper, C. (1947). Speech correction: Principles and methods (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.

Van Riper, C., & Emerick, L.L. (1984). Speech correction: An introduction to speech pathology and audiology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Waling, S.D., Harrison, W., Brewster, B., Finigan, B., Jenks, J., Johnson, J., . . . Soto, M. (1987). A speech guide for teachers and clinicians of hearing impaired children. Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders.