Dramatically improve your students' ability to infer and predict behavior, take another person's perspective, and understand his intentions in step-by-step lessons.
- Discern what others know, expect, and believe
- Make inferences in social situations and in texts
- Identify what the student knows, expects, and believes
- Understand the rationale of social behaviors
Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment has been identified as a core, cognitive feature of autism. That is, children with autism report exactly what they see and know but miss what someone else might think, know, or believe (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985).
Childhood is flush with stories and games that develop ToM. Practical Theory of Mind Games weave these stories and games into every lesson. The lessons are organized in a developmentally progressive order to teach understanding of informational and emotional states. With your expertise, students with social language/autism disorders will develop ToM skills alongside their peers.
The Therapy Manual is divided into three sections:
- Section 1
- information about Theory of Mind (ToM)
- its importance in social development
- how to test for ToM deficiencies
- examples of therapy goals
- resource list of books, internet resources, and short stories
- Section 2
- Understanding Informational States: teaches students to understand seeing and hearing leads to knowing about things for themselves and others. They learn that this knowledge can differ from person to person.
- Section 3
- Understanding Emotional States: teaches students that emotional states in themselves and others differ. This understanding helps students form friendships and relationships.
Ultimately, students are better able to not only imitate appropriate social behaviors but understand why they need to use them.
Help your students with autism develop their social intelligence and improve their social understanding and behaviors with Theory of Mind Games.
Copyright © 2013
- Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to understand one's own and others' minds. It appears spontaneously in childhood (Perner, 1991). By age 4, most children can pass a test of false belief – that is, they understand that someone else can believe something that the child himself knows to be untrue (Wimmer & Perner, 1983).
- Children with autism have particular difficulties in reasoning about mental states, and it has been proposed that this deficit underlies many of the developmental abnormalities that are characteristic of the disorder (Baron-Cohen, Tager-Flusberg, & Cohen, 1993).
- Typically-developing children develop mental state understanding which follows a developmental sequence (Wellman, 1990). Practical Theory of Mind Games follows this developmental sequence and introduces the child with autism to ToM through fun games and stories.
- Children with autism are often taught specific social skills. However, evidence suggests that teaching children about the principles that underlie concepts is more effective than simple instruction (Perry, 1991). Theory of Mind is the why of social interaction.
Practical Theory of Mind Games incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.
Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Cohen, D.J. (Eds.). (1993). Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the representational mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Perry, J. (1991). Learning and transfer: Instructional conditions and conceptual change. Cognitive Development, 6, 449-468.
Wellman, H.M. (1990). The child's theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition, 13, 103-128. doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(83)90004-5