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The Source® for Apraxia Therapy
Ages: Adults   Grades: Adults

Get 180 pages of stimuli for the treatment of acquired apraxia of speech.  Choose from monosyllabic to paragraph length material.

 

Outcomes

  • Speak with less effort and progress toward preciseness
  • Master phoneme groups
  • Improve prosody and rate of speaking
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#31703
$43.95
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** This is a Cloud E-Book that is accessible from any device with Internet access. .

The Source for Apraxia Therapy provides exercises to help your clients regain as much of their communication ability as possible, regardless of the severity of their apraxia.  The stimuli are arranged as follows:   

  • Section 1: Phonemic Groups includes bilabials, labio-dentals, lingua-dentals, lingua-alveolars, glottals, lingua-velars, lingua-palatals, blends, and vowels.
  • Section 2: Articulation/Fluency/Phrasing includes multisyllabic words, conversational sentences, paragraphs, similar word pairs, heteronyms, and more.
  • Section 3: Paralinguistic Drill includes exercises to vary pitch, emphasize target words, and convey emotions.

Exercises focus on the phoneme in the initial position.  The medial and final positions are addressed through coarticulation exercises.  The exercises are arranged for three modes of presentation:

  • clinician reading, client imitating
  • client reading
  • client looking at word, clinician modeling, client imitating

The exercises can be used with clients who have:

  • apraxia
  • dysarthria
  • dysfluency
  • pronounciation difficulties as in English language learners
  • articulation difficulties due to a hearing impairment

Copyright © 1994

Components
195 pages, therapy activities
  • Motor learning principles have shown some beginning evidence of providing systematic treatment to improve functional speech in individuals with apraxia.  Important key features with a motor learning approach include large amounts of practice, practice distribution, random practice, and variability of practice (Mass et al., 2008).
  • ASHA (2004) reported that improved speech intelligibility with a motor speech disorder may involve tasks to improve prosody and articulatory precision.
  • Individuals being treated for apraxia with the use of minimal contrast pairs along with general articulation intervention showed improvement of speech production at the phrase and reading levels (Wambaugh, Kalinyak-Fliszar, West, & Doyle, 1998).
  • In a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to adult apraxia of speech, Ogar, Slama, Dronkers, Amici, and Gorno-Tempini (2005) reported there is still no one treatment approach found to be effective for all individuals with apraxia; however, most intervention programs integrate therapy tasks involving articulation, prosody, pacing, and compensatory strategies.

The Source for Apraxia Therapy incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice.

References

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2004). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from www.asha.org/docs/pdf/PP2004-00191.pdf

Mass, E., Robin, D.A., Austermann Hula, S.N., Freedman, S.E., Wulf, G., Ballard, K.J., et al. (2008). Principles of motor learning in treatment of motor speech disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 277-298.

Ogar, J., Slama, H., Dronkers, N., Amici, S., & Gorno-Tempini, M.L. (2005). Apraxia of speech: An overview. Neurocase, 11, 427-432.

Wambaugh, J.L., Kalinyak-Fliszar, M.M., West, J.E., & Doyle, P.J. (1998). Effects of treatment for sound errors in apraxia of speech and aphasia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 725-743.

Author(s)

Kathryn J. Tomlin

Biography

Kathryn J. Tomlin, M.S., CCC-SLP, has been working with speech, language, and cognitive communication impairments for over 14 years.  In addition to doing therapy and writing therapy materials, Kathy is an avid auction attender in search of Victorian treasures and other collectibles.  She is involved in missions work, particularly in Haiti.  Kathy expresses appreciation to the people who purchase her published works since a significant portion of the proceeds are invested in helping throughout the world.

Kathy is also the author of WALC 1, WALC 2, WALC 3, ACE 1, ACE 2, The Source for Memory Exercises, and The Card Source for Memory Exercises.

Introduction

Prior to a neurologic incident, many speakers utilize an auditory feedback system to monitor whether or not a word is pronounced correctly.  When a word, syllable, or phoneme is incorrectly pronounced, the speaker hears himself and is usually able to modify the physical components so it "sounds right" on the next production.

After a neurologic incident, the client may or may not be able to identify if a word, syllable, or phoneme sounds right.  He is often unable to execute the physical modifications necessary to produce a correct or close approximation of the sound or word.  Impairment to these identification and modification systems can be attributed to apraxia or dysarthria, compounded by aphasia.

Success can occur when a client learns to use all three of the systems available for feedback in conjunction with therapeutic models provided by the therapist.  The effects of apraxia can be remediated or compensated for by the client's learning to look, listen, and feel.  Initially, the process will be highly conscious and intentional, but as skills improve, there will be transference to automatic, unconscious use of the three modalities for identification and modification.

In summary, the underlying purpose of the exercises in The Source for Apraxia Therapy is to help client transfer from an auditory feedback system to a visual-auditory-kinesthetic system.  The emphasis is to utilize all possible feedback by looking, listening, and feeling.

The initial focus of therapy is on imitation of the clinician until feedback systems are firmly established.  The exercises progress from imitation to self-identification and self-modification using the feedback systems as speech intelligibilty, fluency, and prosody are improved.  The exercises also facilitate articulation, co-articulation, and compensation.

The goal of this program is to progress to preciseness.  Focus on target phonemes when working on specific phoneme groups, and ignore the rest of the word's intelligibility.  As your client learns each phoneme group, include it in future exercises.  For example, after a client has mastered bilabials, expect them to be articulated correctly when the client is working on labio-dentals.  Provide him with verbal and visual feedback as needed during those times, as he may need a reminder that a /b/-initiated word requires the lips to be together.

The exercises that follow the phoneme groups focus on:

  • volume, rate, and resonance (indirectly)
  • prosody
  • pitch
  • co-articulation

This book can be used with clients who have:

  • apraxia
  • dysarthria
  • dysfluency
  • other articulation disorders
  • pronounciation difficulties (ESL)
  • articulation difficulties due to a hearing impairment
  • esophageal speech
  • difficulty with paralinguistics and nonverbal speech skills
  • neurological disorders

The Source for Apraxia Therapy:

  1. includes a phoneme section grouped by mode of articulation and visibility
  2. focuses on the initial position of phonemes to improve the feedback loop to include auditory, visual, and tactile/kinesthetic input
  3. addresses medial and final positions indirectly through co-articulation in multisyllabic words, phrases, and sentences
  4. uses extensive drills to incorporate paralinguistics and skills beyond the word level
  5. provides exercises arranged for various modes of presentation:
    • clinician reading and client imitating
    • client reading
    • client looking at the word, then getting a model from the clinician prior to imitation
  6. includes therapeutic suggestions for sessions
  7. provides a Therapy Tracking Chart to help you keep track of where you are in therapy

      Kathy